Mechanical assistance by intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation during reperfusion increases coronary blood flow and mitigates the no-reflow phenomenon: an experimental study.

3rd Department of Cardiology, University of Athens School of Medicine, Greece.
Artificial Organs (Impact Factor: 1.87). 07/2011; 35(9):867-74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1594.2011.01241.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The effects of the intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation on the extent of myocardial infarction (MI), the no-reflow phenomenon (NRP), and coronary blood flow (CBF) during reperfusion in an ischemia-reperfusion experimental model have not been clarified. Eleven pigs underwent occlusion of the mid left anterior descending coronary artery for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. CBF, distal to the occlusion site, was measured. In six experiments, IABP support began 10 min before, and continued throughout reperfusion (IABP Group). Five pigs without IABP support served as controls. At the end of each experiment, the myocardial area at risk (MAR) of infarction and the extent of MI and NRP were measured. Hemodynamic measurements at baseline and during coronary occlusion were similar in both groups. During reperfusion, systolic aortic blood pressure was significantly lower in the IABP Group than in controls. In the IABP Group, CBF reached a peak at 5 min of reperfusion, gradually decreased, but remained higher than at baseline, and significantly higher than in controls throughout the 2 h of reperfusion. In controls, CBF increased significantly above baseline immediately after the onset of reperfusion, then returned to baseline within 90 min. The extent of NRP (37 ± 25% vs. 68 ± 17%, P = 0.047) and MI (39 ± 23% vs. 67 ± 13%, P = 0.036), both expressed as percentage of MAR, was significantly less in the IABP group than in controls. After prolonged myocardial ischemia, IABP assistance started just 10 min before and throughout reperfusion increased CBF and limited infarct size and extent of NRP.

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