Mechanical assistance by intra-aortic balloon pump counterpulsation during reperfusion increases coronary blood flow and mitigates the no-reflow phenomenon: an experimental study.
ABSTRACT The effects of the intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation on the extent of myocardial infarction (MI), the no-reflow phenomenon (NRP), and coronary blood flow (CBF) during reperfusion in an ischemia-reperfusion experimental model have not been clarified. Eleven pigs underwent occlusion of the mid left anterior descending coronary artery for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. CBF, distal to the occlusion site, was measured. In six experiments, IABP support began 10 min before, and continued throughout reperfusion (IABP Group). Five pigs without IABP support served as controls. At the end of each experiment, the myocardial area at risk (MAR) of infarction and the extent of MI and NRP were measured. Hemodynamic measurements at baseline and during coronary occlusion were similar in both groups. During reperfusion, systolic aortic blood pressure was significantly lower in the IABP Group than in controls. In the IABP Group, CBF reached a peak at 5 min of reperfusion, gradually decreased, but remained higher than at baseline, and significantly higher than in controls throughout the 2 h of reperfusion. In controls, CBF increased significantly above baseline immediately after the onset of reperfusion, then returned to baseline within 90 min. The extent of NRP (37 ± 25% vs. 68 ± 17%, P = 0.047) and MI (39 ± 23% vs. 67 ± 13%, P = 0.036), both expressed as percentage of MAR, was significantly less in the IABP group than in controls. After prolonged myocardial ischemia, IABP assistance started just 10 min before and throughout reperfusion increased CBF and limited infarct size and extent of NRP.
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ABSTRACT: The effects of operational modes of intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) on coronary haemodynamics and oxygen delivery/demand ratio are unknown and were investigated in an experimental model of myocardial ischaemia reperfusion. Healthy swine (n = 24) underwent 120-minute ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by 24 h of reperfusion and were randomly assigned to have IABP 1:1 (n = 6), IABP 1:2 (n = 6), IABP 1:3 (n = 6) in the descending aorta or to no IABP implantation (n = 6) 5 min after the onset of reperfusion. Systolic (CBF(Sys)) and diastolic (CBF(Dia)) coronary blood flow, systolic (CR(Sys)) and diastolic (CR(Dia)) coronary resistances and endocardial viability ratio (EVR), as an expression of the oxygen delivery/demand ratio, were measured at 30 min, 1, 6, 12 and 24 h after coronary reperfusion, respectively. IABP at the 1:1 operational mode significantly increased CBF(Dia) and EVR, and reduced CR(Dia) throughout the experiment. Contrastingly, IABP at 1:3 mode resulted in a significant reduction in CBF(Dia), in a steady increase in CR(Dia), in a steady reduction in O(2) delivery and a constant increase in O(2) demand over time. IABP at the 1:2 mode had no overall effect on assessed parameters. IABP at the 1:1 mode enhanced coronary haemodynamics and cardiac contractile efficiency in an acute animal model of coronary ischaemia/reperfusion. On the contrary, IABP support set at the 1:2 or 1:3 modes failed to provide benefit. Progressive reduction in balloon inflation with a 1:1 mode instead of decreasing the heart/IABP operational ratio might represent a better IABP withdrawal protocol and is currently under investigation.European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 02/2012; 42(2):325-32; discussion 332. DOI:10.1093/ejcts/ezr327 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this Editor's Review, articles published in 2011 are organized by category and briefly summarized. As the official journal of The International Federation for Artificial Organs, The International Faculty for Artificial Organs, and the International Society for Rotary Blood Pumps, Artificial Organs continues in the original mission of its founders "to foster communications in the field of artificial organs on an international level."Artificial Organs continues to publish developments and clinical applications of artificial organ technologies in this broad and expanding field of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration from all over the world. We take this time also to express our gratitude to our authors for offering their work to this journal. We offer our very special thanks to our reviewers who give so generously of time and expertise to review, critique, and especially provide meaningful suggestions to the author's work whether eventually accepted or rejected. Without these excellent and dedicated reviewers, the quality expected from such a journal would not be possible. We also express our special thanks to our Publisher, Wiley-Blackwell, for their expert attention and support in the production and marketing of Artificial Organs. In this Editor's Review, that historically has been widely well-received by our readership, we aim to provide a brief reflection of the currently available worldwide knowledge that is intended to advance and better human life while providing insight for continued application of technologies and methods of organ replacement, recovery, and regeneration. We look forward to recording further advances in the coming years.Artificial Organs 03/2012; 36(3):291-323. DOI:10.1111/j.1525-1594.2012.01438.x · 1.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the manner in which coronary dominance affects in-hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Previous studies have shown that left dominant coronary anatomies are associated with worse prognoses in patients with coronary artery disease. Data were analyzed from 4873 ACS patients undergoing PCI between September 2008 and April 2013 at 14 hospitals participating in the Japanese Cardiovascular Database Registry. The patients were grouped based on diagnostic coronary angiograms performed prior to PCI; those with right- or co-dominant anatomy (RD group) and those with left-dominant anatomy (LD group). The average patient age was 67.6±11.8 years and both patient groups had similar ages, coronary risk factors, comorbidities, and prior histories. The numbers of patients presenting with symptoms of heart failure, cardiogenic shock, or cardiopulmonary arrest were significantly higher in the LD group than in the RD group (heart failure: 650 RD patients [14.7%] vs. 87 LD patients [18.8%], P = 0.025; cardiogenic shock: 322 RD patients [7.3%] vs. 48 LD patients [10.3%], P = 0.021; and cardiopulmonary arrest: 197 RD patients [4.5%] vs. 36 LD patients [7.8%], P = 0.003). In-hospital mortality was significantly higher among LD patients than among RD patients (182 RD patients [4.1%] vs. 36 LD patients [7.8%], P = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that LD anatomy was an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.89; P = 0.030). Among ACS patients who underwent PCI, LD patients had significantly worse in-hospital outcomes compared with RD patients, and LD anatomy was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality.PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72672. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072672 · 3.53 Impact Factor