Article

Mechanical Assistance by Intra‐Aortic Balloon Pump Counterpulsation During Reperfusion Increases Coronary Blood Flow and Mitigates the No‐Reflow Phenomenon: An Experimental Study

3rd Department of Cardiology, University of Athens School of Medicine, Greece.
Artificial Organs (Impact Factor: 1.87). 07/2011; 35(9):867-74. DOI: 10.1111/j.1525-1594.2011.01241.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The effects of the intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation on the extent of myocardial infarction (MI), the no-reflow phenomenon (NRP), and coronary blood flow (CBF) during reperfusion in an ischemia-reperfusion experimental model have not been clarified. Eleven pigs underwent occlusion of the mid left anterior descending coronary artery for 1 h, followed by reperfusion for 2 h. CBF, distal to the occlusion site, was measured. In six experiments, IABP support began 10 min before, and continued throughout reperfusion (IABP Group). Five pigs without IABP support served as controls. At the end of each experiment, the myocardial area at risk (MAR) of infarction and the extent of MI and NRP were measured. Hemodynamic measurements at baseline and during coronary occlusion were similar in both groups. During reperfusion, systolic aortic blood pressure was significantly lower in the IABP Group than in controls. In the IABP Group, CBF reached a peak at 5 min of reperfusion, gradually decreased, but remained higher than at baseline, and significantly higher than in controls throughout the 2 h of reperfusion. In controls, CBF increased significantly above baseline immediately after the onset of reperfusion, then returned to baseline within 90 min. The extent of NRP (37 ± 25% vs. 68 ± 17%, P = 0.047) and MI (39 ± 23% vs. 67 ± 13%, P = 0.036), both expressed as percentage of MAR, was significantly less in the IABP group than in controls. After prolonged myocardial ischemia, IABP assistance started just 10 min before and throughout reperfusion increased CBF and limited infarct size and extent of NRP.

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    • "In contrast, an area of increasing interest is the use of IABP in patients with persistent ischaemia (PI) after primary PCI for AMI (no-reflow phenomenon). Because PI is thought to be reversible over time (within hours to days), decreasing the workload of the myocardium and increasing coronary blood flow by IABP is suggested to limit the final size of the infarcted territory [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence questions the role of intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation (IABP) in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS). An area of increasing interest is the use of IABP for persistent ischaemia (PI). We analysed the use of IABP in patients with AMI complicated by CS or PI. From 2008 to 2010, a total of 4076 patients were admitted to our hospital for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for AMI. Out of those, 239 patients received an IABP either because of CS or because of PI. Characteristics and outcome of those patients are investigated. The mean age of the study population was 64 ± 11 years; 75 % were male patients. Of the patients, 63 % had CS and 37 % had PI. Patients with CS had a 30-day mortality rate of 36 %; 1-year mortality was 41 %. Patients with PI had a 30-day mortality rate of 7 %; 1-year mortality was 11 %. Mortality in patients admitted for primary PCI because of AMI complicated by CS is high despite IABP use. Outcome in patients treated with IABP for PI is favourable and mandates further prospective studies.
    Netherlands heart journal: monthly journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation 10/2013; 21(12). DOI:10.1007/s12471-013-0485-9 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    • "IABPs might be effective for limiting infarct sizes in such cases. Pierrakos et al. showed that during reperfusion, IABPs increased coronary blood flow, and effectively limited infarct size [25]. Our study showed that the proportion of IABP insertions during and after PCI procedures was significantly higher in the LD group than in the RD group. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the manner in which coronary dominance affects in-hospital outcomes of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Previous studies have shown that left dominant coronary anatomies are associated with worse prognoses in patients with coronary artery disease. Data were analyzed from 4873 ACS patients undergoing PCI between September 2008 and April 2013 at 14 hospitals participating in the Japanese Cardiovascular Database Registry. The patients were grouped based on diagnostic coronary angiograms performed prior to PCI; those with right- or co-dominant anatomy (RD group) and those with left-dominant anatomy (LD group). The average patient age was 67.6±11.8 years and both patient groups had similar ages, coronary risk factors, comorbidities, and prior histories. The numbers of patients presenting with symptoms of heart failure, cardiogenic shock, or cardiopulmonary arrest were significantly higher in the LD group than in the RD group (heart failure: 650 RD patients [14.7%] vs. 87 LD patients [18.8%], P = 0.025; cardiogenic shock: 322 RD patients [7.3%] vs. 48 LD patients [10.3%], P = 0.021; and cardiopulmonary arrest: 197 RD patients [4.5%] vs. 36 LD patients [7.8%], P = 0.003). In-hospital mortality was significantly higher among LD patients than among RD patients (182 RD patients [4.1%] vs. 36 LD patients [7.8%], P = 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that LD anatomy was an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality (odds ratio, 1.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.89; P = 0.030). Among ACS patients who underwent PCI, LD patients had significantly worse in-hospital outcomes compared with RD patients, and LD anatomy was an independent predictor of in-hospital mortality.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72672. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072672 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of operational modes of intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) on coronary haemodynamics and oxygen delivery/demand ratio are unknown and were investigated in an experimental model of myocardial ischaemia reperfusion. Healthy swine (n = 24) underwent 120-minute ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery followed by 24 h of reperfusion and were randomly assigned to have IABP 1:1 (n = 6), IABP 1:2 (n = 6), IABP 1:3 (n = 6) in the descending aorta or to no IABP implantation (n = 6) 5 min after the onset of reperfusion. Systolic (CBF(Sys)) and diastolic (CBF(Dia)) coronary blood flow, systolic (CR(Sys)) and diastolic (CR(Dia)) coronary resistances and endocardial viability ratio (EVR), as an expression of the oxygen delivery/demand ratio, were measured at 30 min, 1, 6, 12 and 24 h after coronary reperfusion, respectively. IABP at the 1:1 operational mode significantly increased CBF(Dia) and EVR, and reduced CR(Dia) throughout the experiment. Contrastingly, IABP at 1:3 mode resulted in a significant reduction in CBF(Dia), in a steady increase in CR(Dia), in a steady reduction in O(2) delivery and a constant increase in O(2) demand over time. IABP at the 1:2 mode had no overall effect on assessed parameters. IABP at the 1:1 mode enhanced coronary haemodynamics and cardiac contractile efficiency in an acute animal model of coronary ischaemia/reperfusion. On the contrary, IABP support set at the 1:2 or 1:3 modes failed to provide benefit. Progressive reduction in balloon inflation with a 1:1 mode instead of decreasing the heart/IABP operational ratio might represent a better IABP withdrawal protocol and is currently under investigation.
    European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 02/2012; 42(2):325-32; discussion 332. DOI:10.1093/ejcts/ezr327 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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