Essential role of endocytosis of the type II transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS6 in regulating its functionality.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec J1H 5N4, Canada.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 07/2011; 286(33):29035-43. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.223461
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The type II transmembrane serine protease TMPRSS6 (also known as matriptase-2) controls iron homeostasis through its negative regulation of expression of hepcidin, a key hormone involved in iron metabolism. Upstream of the hepcidin-regulated signaling pathway, TMPRSS6 cleaves its target substrate hemojuvelin (HJV) at the plasma membrane, but the dynamics of the cell-surface expression of the protease have not been addressed. Here, we report that TMPRSS6 undergoes constitutive internalization in transfected HEK293 cells and in two human hepatic cell lines, HepG2 and primary hepatocytes, both of which express TMPRSS6 endogenously. Cell surface-labeled TMPRSS6 was internalized and was detected in clathrin- and AP-2-positive vesicles via a dynamin-dependent pathway. The endocytosed TMPRSS6 next transited in early endosomes and then to lysosomes. Internalization of TMPRSS6 is dependent on specific residues within its N-terminal cytoplasmic domain, as site-directed mutagenesis of these residues abrogated internalization and maintained the enzyme at the cell surface. Cells coexpressing these mutants and HJV produced significantly decreased levels of hepcidin compared with wild-type TMPRSS6 due to the sustained cleavage of HJV at the cell surface by TMPRSS6 mutants. Our results underscore for the first time the importance of TMPRSS6 trafficking at the plasma membrane in the regulation of hepcidin expression, an event that is essential for iron homeostasis.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Matriptase-2 (MT2) is a type II transmembrane serine protease that is predominantly expressed in hepatocytes. It suppresses the expression of hepatic hepcidin, an iron regulatory hormone, by cleaving membrane hemojuvelin (HJV) into an inactive form. HJV is a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) co-receptor. Here we report that MT2 is upregulated under iron deprivation. In HepG2 cells stably expressing the coding sequence of MT2 gene, TMPRSS6, incubation with apo-transferrin or membrane impermeable iron chelator, desferroxamine, was able to increase MT2 levels. This increase did not result from the inhibition of MT2 shedding from the cells. Rather, studies using a membrane permeable iron chelator, SIH, revealed that depletion of cellular iron was able to decrease the degradation of MT2 independently of internalization. We found that lack of the putative endocytosis motif in its cytoplasmic domain largely abolished the sensitivity of MT2 to iron-depletion. Neither acute nor chronic iron deficiency was able to alter the association of Tmprss6 mRNA with polyribosomes in the liver of rats indicating a lack of translational regulation by low iron levels. Studies in mice showed that Tmprss6 mRNA was not regulated by iron or the BMP-mediated signaling with no evident correlation with either Bmp6 mRNA or Id1 mRNA, a target of BMP signaling. These results suggest that regulation of MT2 occurs at the level of protein degradation rather than by changes in the rate of internalization and translational or transcriptional mechanisms and that the cytoplasmic domain of MT2 is necessary for its regulation. Copyright © 2014, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2014; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.611913 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ion channels are essential for the regulation of neuronal functions. The significance of plasma membrane, mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomal ion channels in the regulation of Ca(2+) is well established. In contrast, surprisingly little is known about the function of ion channels on the nuclear envelope (NE). Here we demonstrate the presence of functional large-conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels (BK channels) on the NE of rodent hippocampal neurons. Functionally, blockade of nuclear BK channels (nBK channels) induces NE-derived Ca(2+) release, nucleoplasmic Ca(2+) elevation and cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB)-dependent transcription. More importantly, blockade of nBK channels regulates nuclear Ca(2+)-sensitive gene expression and promotes dendritic arborization in a nuclear Ca(2+)-dependent manner. These results suggest that the nBK channel functions as a molecular link between neuronal activity and nuclear Ca(2+) to convey signals from synapse to nucleus and is a new modulator, operating at the NE, of synaptic activity-dependent neuronal functions.
    Nature Neuroscience 06/2014; DOI:10.1038/nn.3744 · 14.98 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Lutheran (Lu), an immunoglobulin superfamily transmembrane receptor, is also known as basal cell adhesion molecule (B-CAM). Lu/B-CAM is a specific receptor for laminin α5, a subunit of laminin-511 (LM-511) that is a major component of basement membranes in various tissues. Our previous study showed that Lu/B-CAM was cleaved by MT1-MMP and released from cell surfaces. In this study we examined the soluble Lu/B-CAM in culture media and in plasma of mice bearing HuH-7 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and patients with HCC. Two HCC cell lines, HepG2 and HuH-7, released Lu/B-CAM into the culture media. Although Lu/B-CAM was cleaved by MT1-MMP in HuH-7 cells, HepG2 cells released Lu/B-CAM in a MMP-independent manner. The concentration of Lu/B-CAM released into mouse plasma correlated with tumor size. Moreover the soluble Lu/B-CAM in plasma of HCC patients was significantly decreased after resection of the tumor. Immunohistochemical studies showed that although the expression of Lu/B-CAM was observed in most HCCs, MT1-MMP was not always expressed in tumor tissues, suggesting that a part of Lu/B-CAM in plasma of HCC patients was also released in a MMP-independent manner. In vitro studies showed that the soluble Lu/B-CAM released from HCC cells bound to LM-511. Moreover the soluble Lu/B-CAM influenced cell migration on LM-511. These results suggest that soluble Lu/B-CAM serves as not only a novel marker for HCC but also a modulator in tumor progression.
    Experimental Cell Research 10/2014; 328(1). DOI:10.1016/j.yexcr.2014.07.012 · 3.37 Impact Factor