A preliminary analysis of correlations between chewing motor patterns and mandibular morphology across mammals.
ABSTRACT The establishment of a publicly-accessible repository of physiological data on feeding in mammals, the Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED), along with improvements in reconstruction of mammalian phylogeny, significantly improves our ability to address long-standing questions about the evolution of mammalian feeding. In this study, we use comparative phylogenetic methods to examine correlations between jaw robusticity and both the relative recruitment and the relative time of peak activity for the superficial masseter, deep masseter, and temporalis muscles across 19 mammalian species from six orders. We find little evidence for a relationship between jaw robusticity and electromyographic (EMG) activity for either the superficial masseter or temporalis muscles across mammals. We hypothesize that future analyses may identify significant associations between these physiological and morphological variables within subgroups of mammals that share similar diets, feeding behaviors, and/or phylogenetic histories. Alternatively, the relative peak recruitment and timing of the balancing-side (i.e., non-chewing-side) deep masseter muscle (BDM) is significantly negatively correlated with the relative area of the mandibular symphysis across our mammalian sample. This relationship exists despite BDM activity being associated with different loading regimes in the symphyses of primates compared to ungulates, suggesting a basic association between magnitude of symphyseal loads and symphyseal area among these mammals. Because our sample primarily represents mammals that use significant transverse movements during chewing, future research should address whether the correlations between BDM activity and symphyseal morphology characterize all mammals or should be restricted to this "transverse chewing" group. Finally, the significant correlations observed in this study suggest that physiological parameters are an integrated and evolving component of feeding across mammals.
Article: Mandibular function in Galago crassicaudatus and Macaca fascicularis: an in vivo approach to stress analysis of the mandible.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Single-element and/or rosette strain gages were bonded to mandibular cortical bone in Galago crassicaudatus and Macaca fascicularis. Five galago and eleven macaque bone strain experiments were performed and analyzed. In vivo bone strain was recorded from the lateral surface of the mandibular corpus below the postcanine tooth row during transducer biting and during mastication and ingestion of food objects. In macaques and galagos, the mandibular corpus on the balancing side is primarily bent in the sagittal plane during mastication and is both twisted about its long axis and bent in the sagittal plane during transducer biting. On the working side, it is primarily twisted about its long axis and directly sheared perpendicular to its long axis, and portions of it are bent in the sagittal plane during mastication and molar transducer biting. In macaques, the mandibular corpus on each side is primarily bent in the sagittal plane and twisted during incisal transducer biting and ingestion of food objects, and it is transversely bent and slightly twisted during jaw opening. Since galagos usually refused to bite the transducer or food objects with their incisors, an adequate characterization of mandibular stress patterns during these behaviors was not possible. In galagos the mandibular corpus experiences very little transverse bending stress during jaw opening, perhaps in part due to its unfused mandibular symphysis. Marked differences in the patterns of mandibular bone strain were present between galagos and macaques during the masticatory power stroke and during transducer biting. Galagos consistently had much more strain on the working side of the mandibular corpus than on the balancing side. These experiments support the hypothesis that galagos, in contrast to macaques, employ a larger amount of working-side muscle force relative to the balancing-side muscle force during unilateral biting and mastication, and that the fused mandibular symphysis is an adaption to use a maximal amount of balancing-side muscle force during unilateral biting and mastication. These experiments also demonstrate the effects that rosette position, bite force magnitudes, and types of food eaten have on recorded mandibular strain patterns.Journal of Morphology 03/1979; 159(2):253-96. · 1.54 Impact Factor
Article: Evolution of muscle activity patterns driving motions of the jaw and hyoid during chewing in Gnathostomes.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although chewing has been suggested to be a basal gnathostome trait retained in most major vertebrate lineages, it has not been studied broadly and comparatively across vertebrates. To redress this imbalance, we recorded EMG from muscles powering anteroposterior movement of the hyoid, and dorsoventral movement of the mandibular jaw during chewing. We compared muscle activity patterns (MAP) during chewing in jawed vertebrate taxa belonging to unrelated groups of basal bony fishes and artiodactyl mammals. Our aim was to outline the evolution of coordination in MAP. Comparisons of activity in muscles of the jaw and hyoid that power chewing in closely related artiodactyls using cross-correlation analyses identified reorganizations of jaw and hyoid MAP between herbivores and omnivores. EMG data from basal bony fishes revealed a tighter coordination of jaw and hyoid MAP during chewing than seen in artiodactyls. Across this broad phylogenetic range, there have been major structural reorganizations, including a reduction of the bony hyoid suspension, which is robust in fishes, to the acquisition in a mammalian ancestor of a muscle sling suspending the hyoid. These changes appear to be reflected in a shift in chewing MAP that occurred in an unidentified anamniote stem-lineage. This shift matches observations that, when compared with fishes, the pattern of hyoid motion in tetrapods is reversed and also time-shifted relative to the pattern of jaw movement.Integrative and Comparative Biology 06/2011; 51(2):235-46. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We examined masseter and temporalis recruitment and firing patterns during chewing in five male Belanger's treeshrews (Tupaia belangeri), using electromyography (EMG). During chewing, the working-side masseters tend to show almost three times more scaled EMG activity than the balancing-side masseters. Similarly, the working-side temporalis muscles have more than twice the scaled EMG activity of the balancing-side temporalis. The relatively higher activity in the working-side muscles suggests that treeshrews recruit less force from their balancing-side muscles during chewing. Most of the jaw-closing muscles in treeshrews can be sorted into an early-firing or late-firing group, based on occurrence of peak activity during the chewing cycle. Specifically, the first group of jaw-closing muscles to reach peak activity consists of the working-side anterior and posterior temporalis and the balancing-side superficial masseter. The balancing-side anterior and posterior temporalis and the working-side superficial masseter peak later in the power stroke. The working-side deep masseter peaks, on average, slightly before the working-side superficial masseter. The balancing-side deep masseter typically peaks early, at about the same time as the balancing-side superficial masseter. Thus, treeshrews are unlike nonhuman anthropoids that peak their working-side deep masseters early and their balancing-side deep masseters late in the power stroke. Because in anthropoids the late firing of the balancing-side deep masseter contributes to wishboning of the symphysis, the treeshrew EMG data suggest that treeshrews do not routinely wishbone their symphyses during chewing. Based on the treeshrew EMG data, we speculate that during chewing, primitive euprimates 1) recruited more force from the working-side jaw-closing muscles as compared to the balancing-side muscles, 2) fired an early group of jaw-closing muscles followed by a second group of muscles that peaked later in the power stroke, 3) did not fire their working-side deep masseter significantly earlier than their working-side superficial masseter, and 4) did not routinely fire their balancing-side deep masseter after the working-side superficial masseter.American Journal of Physical Anthropology 06/2005; 127(1):26-45. · 2.82 Impact Factor