Disease causing mutations in the TNF and TNFR superfamilies: Focus on molecular mechanisms driving disease.
ABSTRACT The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and TNF receptor (TNFR) superfamilies comprise multidomain proteins with diverse roles in cell activation, proliferation and cell death. These proteins play pivotal roles in the initiation, maintenance and termination of immune responses and have vital roles outside the immune system. The discovery and analysis of diseases associated with mutations in these families has revealed crucial mechanistic details of their normal functions. This review focuses on mutations causing four different diseases, which represent distinct pathological mechanisms that can exist within these superfamilies: autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS; FAS mutations), common variable immunodeficiency (CVID; TACI mutations), tumor necrosis factor receptor associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS; TNFR1 mutations) and hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED; EDA1/EDAR mutations). In particular, we highlight how mutations have revealed information about normal receptor-ligand function and how such studies might direct new therapeutic approaches.
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ABSTRACT: B-1 and B-2 B cell populations have different progenitors, receptor diversity, anatomic location, and functions - suggesting vastly differing requisites for homeostatic regulation. There is evidence that the B lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) family of cytokines and receptors, key factors in the homeostatic regulation of B-2 B cell subsets, is also a major player in the B-1 compartment. Here we review the development and differentiation of these two primary B cell lineages and their immune functions. We discuss evidence that BLyS or a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) availability in different anatomic sites, coupled with signature BLyS receptor expression patterns on different B cell subsets, may be important for homeostatic regulation of B-1 as well as B-2 populations. Finally, we extend our working model of B cell homeostasis to integrate B-1s.Frontiers in Immunology 02/2013; 4:37. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00037
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ABSTRACT: The TNF and TNFR superfamilies of proteins are conserved throughout evolution. The first invertebrate orthologs of TNF and TNFR, Eiger and Wengen, were identified in Drosophila, which enabled us to take advantage of its powerful genetics. Indeed, genetic studies on Eiger in the last decade have discovered their signaling mechanisms through activation of the JNK pathway and unveiled the role of Eiger-JNK signaling in a variety of cellular and tissue processes such as cell death, cell proliferation, tissue growth regulation, host defense, pain sensitization, and canalization. In this review, we will describe the in vivo signaling of Eiger and its physiological roles in fly development and homeostasis, and will discuss the evolution of the TNF/TNFR systems.Seminars in Immunology 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.smim.2014.05.003 · 6.12 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ectodysplasin (Eda) is the most studied tumor necrosis ligand in the field of developmental biology. In all vertebrates studied so far, inactivating germline mutations in Eda lead to the genetic disease called hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED). In humans, HED is a life-threatening condition in particular in infants due to absent or severely reduced sweating leading to hyperthermia. HED is also characterized by sparse hair, and oligo- or anodontia. Research of the Eda pathway has not only increased our knowledge on ectodermal appendage development and etiology of developmental disorders, but also on evolution of several vertebrate species including humankind. Studies on mouse and dog models of HED has led to one of the most stunning breakthroughs in applied developmental biology research by showing that a short-term treatment of neonates with a synthetic ligand corrects many of the HED-associated traits. Eighteen years after the identification of EDA as the causative gene in HED, a phase II trial aiming at permanent correction of the disease is now ongoing. This review summarizes the latest discoveries in the Eda field and points to areas that need further investigation such as the possible involvement of Eda in cell migration, stem cell maintenance, or cancer.Seminars in Immunology 06/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.smim.2014.05.002 · 6.12 Impact Factor