Influence of pre- and peri-natal nutrition on skeletal acquisition and maintenance

Center for Advanced Orthopedic Studies, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.
Bone (Impact Factor: 3.97). 06/2011; 50(2):444-51. DOI: 10.1016/j.bone.2011.06.019
Source: PubMed


Early life nutrition has substantial influences on postnatal health, with both under- and overnutrition linked with permanent metabolic changes that alter reproductive and immune function and significantly increase metabolic disease risk in offspring. Since perinatal nutrition depends in part on maternal metabolic condition, maternal diet during gestation and lactation is a risk factor for adult metabolic disease. Such developmental responses may be adaptive, but might also result from constraints on, or pathological changes to, normal physiology. The rising prevalence of both obesity and osteoporosis, and the identification of links among bone, fat, brain, and gut, suggest that obesity and osteoporosis may be related, and moreover that their roots may lie in early life. Here we focus on evidence for how maternal diet during gestation and lactation affects metabolism and skeletal acquisition in humans and in animal models. We consider the effects of overall caloric restriction, and macronutrient imbalances including high fat, high sucrose, and low protein, compared to normal diet. We then discuss potential mechanisms underlying the skeletal responses, including perinatal developmental programming via disruption of the perinatal leptin surge and/or epigenetic changes, to highlight unanswered questions and identify the most critical areas for future research.

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Available from: Maureen J Devlin, Oct 06, 2015
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    • "We also have shown that both models of early weaning decrease adipogenesis, total bone mineral density, total bone mineral content, bone area and serum osteocalcin in neonate [23]. Obesity and osteoporosis may be related disorders, and their roots may lie in early life [24]. Since those two early weaning models decrease adipogenesis and osteogenesis at weaning and program for obesity and some parameters of metabolic syndrome, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the pharmacological and mechanical early weaning in the adult offspring bone health, in order to determine if undernutrition caused by early weaning could program the offspring bone mass accretion later in life. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Obesity and osteoporosis seems to have a common pathogenesis, especially because bone and adipose tissue have common origins. Since early weaning (EW) decreases adipogenesis and osteogenesis in neonate, further programming for obesity and hyperleptinemia, we hypothesized that these changes in adipogenesis could affect bone metabolism. Materials/Methods Lactating rats were separated into 3 groups: control - dams whose pups ate milk throughout lactation; mechanical EW (MEW) - dams were involved with a bandage interrupting suckling in the last 3 days of lactation; pharmacological EW (PEW) - dams were bromocriptine-treated (0.5 mg/twice a day via intraperitoneal injection) 3 days before weaning. The adult offspring was subjected to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and bone tissue was also evaluated by computed tomography, microcomputed tomography and biomechanical tests, beyond serum analyses. Results MEW and PEW presented total bone mineral density (BMD), total bone mineral content, spine BMD and bone area in postnatal day 150 (PN150). In PN180, both groups also presented increase of these parameters and higher femur BMD and fourth lumbar vertebra (LV4) BMD, femoral head radiodensity and LV4 vertebral body radiodensity, trabecular number, stiffness and break load; lower trabecular separation, maximal deformation and break deformation, and also hyperleptinemia and higher visceral fat mass and 25-hydroxivitamin D, whereas parathyroid hormone was unchanged. Serum C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen was lower for both groups. Conclusions Since both models program for obesity and increased bone mass, and leptin increases plasma vitamin D levels, probably leptin is the link between obesity and higher bone mass.
    Metabolism: clinical and experimental 01/2013; 63(3). DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2013.11.010 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diet, a modifiable osteoporosis risk factor, plays an important role in the acquisition and maintenance of bone mass. The influence of diet on bone begins in childhood; even maternal diet can influence bone mass in the offspring. A good general nutritional status and adequate dietary protein, calcium, vitamin D, fruits, and vegetables have a positive influence on bone health, while a high caloric diet and heavy alcohol consumption have been associated with lower bone mass and higher rates of fracture. The evidence for a role of other minerals and vitamins in skeletal health is not as strong, but recent evidence suggests that vitamins C and K might also have an effect on bone.
    Current Osteoporosis Reports 09/2012; 10(4). DOI:10.1007/s11914-012-0119-y
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    ABSTRACT: During the last decade a great concern has developed for determining what factors influence bone mineral accretion in healthy children. Mother's milk represents the primary source of calcium and other nutrients in the neonate. The development of bone and adipose tissue has common origins. Since early weaning decreases adipogenesis in neonate, our aim was to evaluate bone metabolism in 2 models of early weaning (EW) in neonate rats. Lactating rats were separated into 3 groups: control: pups had free access to milk; MEW: dams were involved with a bandage mechanically (M) interrupting lactation in the last 3 days; and PEW: dams were pharmacologically (P) treated to block prolactin (0.5 mg bromocryptine/twice a day) 3 days before standard weaning. Significant difference had p<0.05. At weaning, MEW and PEW pups presented lower body weight ( - 18% and  - 15%), total body fat ( - 26% and  - 27%), total bone mineral density ( - 7% and  - 6%), total bone mineral content ( - 30% and  - 32%), bone area ( - 28% and  - 30%), serum osteocalcin ( - 20% and  - 55%), and higher C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX-I) (1.3 and 1.1-fold increase). However, serum ionized calcium was lower only in MEW pups ( - 34%), 25-hydroxyvitamin D was higher (1.4-fold increase), and PTH was lower ( - 26%) only in PEW group. The present study shows that both early weaning models leads to an impairment of osteogenesis associated with lower adipogenesis by different mechanisms, involving mainly changes in vitamin D and PTH.
    Hormone and Metabolic Research 12/2012; 45(5). DOI:10.1055/s-0032-1331216 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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