Effort reward imbalance is associated with vagal withdrawal in Danish public sector employees
ABSTRACT The current study analyzed the relationship between psychosocial work environment assessed by the Effort Reward Imbalance Model (ERI-model) and heart rate variability (HRV) measured at baseline and again, two years later, as this relationship is scarcely covered by the literature.
Measurements of HRV during seated rest were obtained from 231 public sector employees. The associations between the ERI-model, and HRV were examined using a series of mixed effects models. The dependent variables were the logarithmically transformed levels of HRV-measures. Gender and year of measurement were included as factors, whereas age, and time of measurement were included as covariates. Subject was included as a random effect.
Effort and effort reward imbalance were positively associated with heart rate and the ratio between low frequency (LF) and high frequency power (HF) and negatively associated with total power (TP) and HF. Reward was positively associated with TP.
Adverse psychosocial work environment according to the ERI-model was associated with HRV, especially in the form of vagal withdrawal and most pronounced in women.
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ABSTRACT: Physical activity (PA) and exercise are often used as tools to reduce stress and therefore the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Meanwhile, heart rate variability (HRV) has been utilized to assess both stress and PA or exercise influences. The objective of the present review was to examine the current literature in regards to workplace stress, PA/exercise and HRV to encourage further studies. We considered original articles from known databases (PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge) over the last 10 years that examined these important factors. A total of seven studies were identified with workplace stress strongly associated with reduced HRV in workers. Longitudinal workplace PA interventions may provide a means to improve worker stress levels and potentially cardiovascular risk with mechanisms still to be clarified. Future studies are recommended to identify the impact of PA, exercise, and fitness on stress levels and HRV in workers and their subsequent influence on cardiovascular health.Frontiers in Physiology 02/2014; 5:67. DOI:10.3389/fphys.2014.00067
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are leading causes of morbidity and mortality and have been rising in incidence. Little is known about the effects of worker classifications on HDP. This large-scale study examines associations between occupational classifications and HDP. Methods: We examined 385,537 Texas Electronic Registrar Birth Registration 2005 birth certificates. Maternal occupations were coded using the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). Crude and adjusted risks for HDP among working women within occupational groupings were analyzed and compared with risks of nonemployed women. Results: The risk of developing HDP varies across SOC occupational classifications. After controlling for known confounders, women employed in business, management, and the legal and social services, teaching, counseling, and healthcare professions are at higher risk for developing HDP than women employed in support industries, such as food preparation, housekeeping, cosmetic and personal care services, or nonemployed women. Women employed in computer, engineering, architectural, and scientific occupations also carry greater risks, although these increased risks do not affect women of normal weight. Conclusions: Worker classification is an independent risk factor for HDP. Additional work must be done to examine the complex interactions among individual maternal genetics, biology, and physical and mental abilities and how they affect adverse health outcomes. Examining job stressors may shed light on these occupational variations and their potential HDP associations. Strategies to mitigate job stressors in the workplace should be considered.Journal of Women's Health 01/2013; DOI:10.1089/jwh.2012.3975 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This systematic review evaluates and summarizes the evidence of the association between psychosocial work environment as indicated by several work-stress models such as Job-Demand-Control (JDC), Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI), or Organizational Justice (OJ) and autonomic nervous system (ANS) function as indexed by heart rate variability (HRV). We conducted a systematic literature search following the PRISMA-Statement in eleven databases including Medline, Web of Science and PsycINFO to address medical as well as psychological aspects of the relation between psychosocial work-stress models and HRV. We identified 19 publications with a total of 8382 employees from ten countries reporting data from the years 1976-2008. Overall, nine of all studies report a negative and significant association between vagally-mediated HRV and measures of stress at work, while eight of all studies report a negative and significant association to mixed sympathetic and parasympathetic measures of HRV. This systematic review provides evidence that adverse psychosocial work conditions are negatively associated with ANS function as indexed by HRV.Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 07/2013; 37:1810–1823. DOI:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2013.07.004 · 10.28 Impact Factor