Prognostic factors for survival in patients with recurrence of muscle invasive bladder cancer after treatment with curative intent.
ABSTRACT Prognostic factors for survival after recurrent MIBC are unknown and were evaluated using a population-based series of 1409 MIBC patients. 330 Patients who underwent RC or RT with curative intent and who suffered from recurrence were selected. Multivariable survival analyses were performed. Clinicopathological factors that predict survival after recurrence are recurrence location, treatment for recurrence and age at recurrence diagnosis.
We conducted this study to evaluate the prognostic factors for survival among patients with recurrent muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) after initial treatment with curative intent.
Clinical data were collected from a population-based series of 1409 patients with MIBC. We selected 330 patients who underwent radical cystectomy (RC) or radiotherapy (RT) for urothelial carcinoma with curative intent and who experienced recurrence. Multivariate survival analyses were performed with death from MIBC as the endpoint. Covariates were gender, time to recurrence, age at diagnosis of recurrence, recurrence multiplicity, localization, and treatment for recurrence. Analyses were performed separately for patients initially treated with RC (i-RC) or external beam radiotherapy (i-EBRT).
Patients with recurrence after i-RC showed a 1- and 3-year survival of 17% and 6%, respectively. Localization and treatment for recurrence were significantly associated with survival. Patients with recurrence after i-EBRT showed a 1- and 3-year survival of 31% and 12%, respectively. Age at diagnosis of recurrence, localization, and treatment for recurrence were significantly associated with survival.
This study confirms the extremely poor prognosis after recurrence of MIBC in patients initially treated with surgery or RT. Clinicopathologic factors that predict survival after disease recurrence are location of recurrence, treatment for recurrence, and age at diagnosis of recurrence. Improved diagnosis of primary MIBC to detect extravesical disease and more effective therapeutic approaches to target recurrent MIBC are needed.
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ABSTRACT: Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Outcomes after disease recurrence in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder treated with radical cystectomy are variable, but the majority of patients die from the disease within 2 years after disease recurrence. Knowledge about prognostic factors that may influence survival after disease recurrence is limited. We found that outcomes after disease recurrence in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder are significantly affected by common clinicopathological factors. In addition, a shorter time from surgery to disease recurrence is significantly associated with poor outcomes. These factors should be considered when scheduling salvage chemotherapy protocols/clinical trials. OBJECTIVE: • To describe the natural history following disease recurrence after radical cystectomy (RC) and to identify prognostic factors that influence cancer-specific survival with special focus on time from RC to disease recurrence. METHODS: • We identified 1545 patients from 16 international institutions who experienced disease recurrence after RC and bilateral lymphadenectomy. None of the patients received preoperative chemotherapy; 549 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. • A multivariable Cox regression model addressed time to cancer-specific mortality after disease recurrence. RESULTS: • The median cancer-specific survival time after disease recurrence was 6.9 months (95% CI 6.3-7.4). Overall, 1254 of 1545 patients died from urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and 47 patients died from other causes. The actuarial cancer-specific survival estimate at 12 months after disease recurrence was 32%. • On multivariable analysis, non-organ-confined tumour stages (hazard ratio [HR] 1.38, P= 0.002), lymph node metastasis (HR 1.25, P < 0.001), positive soft tissue surgical margin (HR 1.32, P= 0.002), female gender (HR 1.21, P= 0.003), advanced age (HR 1.16, P < 0.001) and a shorter interval from surgery to disease recurrence (P < 0.001) were significantly associated with cancer-specific mortality. • The adjusted risk of death from cancer within 1 year after disease recurrence for patients who recurred 6, 12 and 24 months after surgery was 70%, 64% and 60%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: • Over two-thirds of patients who experience disease recurrence of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder after RC die within 12 months. • Common clinicopathological factors are strongly associated with cancer-specific mortality. A shorter time from surgery to disease recurrence is significantly associated with poor outcomes. • Accurate risk stratification could help in patient counselling and decision-making regarding salvage treatment.BJU International 09/2012; · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The prognosis of patients with advanced and recurrent urothelial cancer (UC) is poor. Although cisplatin (CDDP)-containing chemotherapy is the most effective regimen in these patients, there is no other established chemotherapeutic regimen. We administered combination therapy with low-dose gemcitabine (GEM) and paclitaxel (PTX), named low-dose gemcitabine-paclitaxel (LD-GP) therapy, as salvage therapy for these patients. The aim was to evaluate the anti-tumoral effects, relief of pain, and toxicity of LD-GP therapy in patients with resistance to CDDP-containing therapy. Thirty-five patients with advanced UC, previously treated with CDDP-containing regimens, were treated with LD-GP therapy (GEM, 700 mg/m(2) + PTX, 70 mg/m(2) on day 1 and 8, repeated every 28 days). Pain was measured on a visual analog scale before and after treatment. Pain relief and survival were compared between this and other treatment regimens. None of the patients had complete response to LD-GP therapy. Partial response and stable disease were seen in 25.7 and 62.9 % of patients, respectively. Kaplan-Meier curves showed better survival in patients with LD-GP therapy than with others (p = 0.034). Twenty-eight patients (80.0 %) had adequate pain relief, and only two patients needed to increase their analgesics. Other regimens demonstrated pain relief in 30.4 % of patients. Common toxicities included leukopenia, with five patients requiring granular colony-stimulating factor therapy (14.3 %). The most common non-hematologic toxicity was fatigue (n = 7, 17.1 %). LD-GP therapy is feasible and well tolerated as salvage therapy in patients with advanced UC with resistance to CDDP-containing therapy.Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology 08/2012; 70(3):451-9. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate oncological outcomes of patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) exclusively at radical cystectomy (RC) and no previous history of ≥T1 disease. Patients undergoing RC with curative intent for CIS between 1971 and 2008 at the University of Southern California were included if they met all the following criteria: (i) pathological CIS-only disease at RC, (ii) preoperative clinical stage cCIS and/or cCIS + cTa, and (iii) no previous history of lamina propria invasion (≥pT1). Kaplan-Meier plots were used to estimate the probabilities of recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Of the 1964 consented patients 52 met the inclusion criteria with a median (range) follow-up of 8.5 (0.008-34) years. A median (range) of 36 (10-95) lymph nodes were identified per patient but no metastases found. Estimated 5- and 10-year RFS rates were 94% and 90%, respectively and estimated 5- and 10-year OS rates were 85% and 66%, respectively. Different mechanisms of recurrence were found in four (8%) patients after a median (range) interval of 2.4 (0.6-7.1) years. While two patients had metachronous recurrence within the urinary tract, the first of the other two had early systemic recurrence and the second late local recurrence. We noticed excellent outcomes after RC for CIS-only disease. However, patients may have synchronous and/or develop metachronous tumours, as well as local and/or distant/systemic recurrence that can be cured but may also lead to fatal outcomes.BJU International 05/2013; · 3.05 Impact Factor