Expression of galectin-9 by IFN-γ stimulated human nasal polyp fibroblasts through MAPK, PI3K, and JAK/STAT signaling pathways.
ABSTRACT Galectin-9 exhibited potent and selective eosinophil chemoattractant activity and attracted eosinophils in vitro and in vivo. Nasal polyposis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the upper airway characterized by the marked presence of inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils. Thus, galectin-9 may be implicated in the pathogenesis of nasal polyposis. The study was designed to investigate whether interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) can induce the augmentation of galectin-9 expression and induce the expression of galectin-9 in nasal polyps. We examined the correlation between galectin-9 expression and eosinophil infiltration in nasal polyps. In addition, we identified the signaling pathways involved in the elevation of galectin-9 expression in response to IFN-γ. Our data demonstrate that the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), phosphatidylinositol 3 phosphate kinase (PI3K), and Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) may play important roles in the selective recruitment of eosinophils in nasal polyp tissues through the production of galectin-9. These findings suggest that galectin-9 expression is associated with eosinophil infiltration in polyps of patients with nasal polyposis.