Article

NEMO is a key component of NF-κB- and IRF-3-dependent TLR3-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus.

St Giles Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY10065, USA.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology (Impact Factor: 11.25). 06/2011; 128(3):610-7.e1-4. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.04.059
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Children with germline mutations in Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), UNC93B1, TNF receptor-associated factor 3, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 are prone to herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis, owing to impaired TLR3-triggered, UNC-93B-dependent, IFN-α/β, and/or IFN-λ-mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-dependent immunity.
We explore here the molecular basis of the pathogenesis of herpes simplex encephalitis in a child with a hypomorphic mutation in nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) essential modulator, which encodes the regulatory subunit of the inhibitor of the Iκβ kinase complex.
The TLR3 signaling pathway was investigated in the patient's fibroblasts by analyses of IFN-β, IFN-λ, and IL-6 mRNA and protein levels, by quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively, upon TLR3 stimulation (TLR3 agonists or TLR3-dependent viruses). NF-κB activation was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and interferon regulatory factor 3 dimerization on native gels after stimulation with a TLR3 agonist.
The patient's fibroblasts displayed impaired responses to TLR3 stimulation in terms of IFN-β, IFN-λ, and IL-6 production, owing to impaired activation of both NF-κB and IRF-3. Moreover, vesicular stomatitis virus, a potent IFN-inducer in human fibroblasts, and herpes simplex virus-1, induced only low levels of IFN-β and IFN-λ in the patient's fibroblasts, resulting in enhanced viral replication and cell death, as reported for UNC-93B-deficient fibroblasts.
Herpes simplex encephalitis may occur in patients carrying NF-κB essential modulator mutations, due to the impairment of NF-κB- and interferon regulatory factor 3-dependent-TLR3-mediated antiviral IFN production.

0 Followers
 · 
192 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Due to the evolutionary conservation of innate immune mechanisms, Drosophila has been extensively used as a model for the dissection in genetic terms of innate host immunity to infection. Genetic screening in fruit flies has set the stage for the pathways and systems required for responding to immune challenge and the dynamics of the progression of bacterial and fungal infection. In addition, fruit flies have been used as infection models to dissect host-pathogen interactions from both sides of this equation. This chapter describes our current understanding of the genetics of the fruit fly immune response and summarizes the most important findings in this area during the past decade.
    Advances in genetics 01/2013; 83:71-97. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-407675-4.00002-X · 5.41 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are fundamental sensor molecules of the host innate immune system, which detect conserved molecular signatures of a wide range of microbial pathogens and initiate innate immune responses via distinct signaling pathways. Various TLRs are implicated in the early interplay of host cells with invading viruses, which regulates viral replication and/or host responses, ultimately impacting on viral pathogenesis. To survive the host innate defense mechanisms, many viruses have developed strategies to evade or counteract signaling through the TLR pathways, creating an advantageous environment for their propagation. Here we review the current knowledge of the roles TLRs play in antiviral innate immune responses, discuss examples of TLR-mediated viral recognition, and describe strategies used by viruses to antagonize the host antiviral innate immune responses.
    Journal of Molecular Biology 12/2013; 426(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jmb.2013.11.024 · 3.96 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research over the past decade has revealed how NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO; also known as IKKγ) regulates the IKKα-IKKβ signalling axis in the innate immune system. The discovery that NEMO is a polyubiquitin-binding protein and that the IKK complex is modulated by other protein kinases that are themselves controlled by polyubiquitin chains has provided a deeper molecular understanding of the non-degradative roles of ubiquitylation. New mechanistic insights of NEMO and related polyubiquitin-binding proteins have become a paradigm for how the interplay between phosphorylation and ubiquitylation controls cell signalling networks in health and disease.
    Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 08/2013; DOI:10.1038/nrm3644 · 36.46 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
40 Downloads
Available from
May 19, 2014