Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a fairly common disease in children and adolescents. There are only limited data available for adults.
A retrospective analysis was conducted to study renal manifestations in patients with HSP treated in our institution between 1982 and 2007. We divided our adult cohort according to age - under or over 60 years - to examine differences in elderly patients.
HSP was identified in 2.2% of patients referred to us for kidney biopsy. Purpuric lesions and renal involvement were found in all patients. An important triggering factor for the development of HSP in our series was chronic alcohol intake. Forty percent of our patients fulfilled the WHO criteria for alcoholics. Renal involvement was particularly prominent in patients over 60 years of age. At disease onset, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 63% lower in the elderly. Within a median follow-up of 8 years, renal function was significantly better in younger adults than in the elderly. 32% of the elderly have shown Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) < 20 ml/min/1.73 m2 in contrast to only 7% in patients < 60 years. Furthermore, significantly more elderly patients reached end-stage renal failure.
The data indicate that renal manifestation of HSP in the elderly is severe and its outcome relatively poor, and worsens when compared to patients < 60 years.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The severity of clinical features and the outcomes in previous series of patients reported with Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) vary greatly, probably due to selection bias. To establish the actual clinical spectrum of HSP in all age groups using an unselected and wide series of patients diagnosed at a single center, we performed a retrospective review of 417 patients classified as having HSP according to the criteria proposed by Michel et al. Of 417 patients, 240 were male and 177 female, with a median age at the time of disease diagnosis of 7.5 years (interquartile range [IQR], 5.3-20.1 yr). Three-quarters of the patients were children or young people aged 20 years or younger (n = 315), and one-quarter were adults (n = 102). The most frequent precipitating events were a previous infection (38%), usually an upper respiratory tract infection, and/or drug intake (18.5%) shortly before the onset of the vasculitis. At disease onset the most common manifestations were skin lesions (55.9%), nephropathy (24%), gastrointestinal involvement (13.7%), joint symptoms (9.1%), and fever (6.2%). Cutaneous involvement occurring in all patients, mainly purpuric skin lesion, was the most common manifestation when the vasculitis was fully established, followed by gastrointestinal (64.5%), joint (63.1%), and renal involvement (41.2%). The main laboratory findings were leukocytosis (36.7%), anemia (8.9%), and increased serum IgA levels (31.7%). The most frequent therapies used were corticosteroids (35%), nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (14%), and cytotoxic agents (5%). After a median follow-up of 12 months (IQR, 2-38 mo), complete recovery was observed in most cases (n = 346; 83.2%), while persistent, usually mild, nephropathy was observed in only 32 (7.7%) cases. Relapses were observed in almost a third of patients (n = 133; 31.9%).In conclusion, although HSP is a typical vasculitis affecting children and young people, it is not uncommon in adults. The prognosis is favorable in most cases, depending largely on renal involvement.
Medicine 03/2014; 93(2):106-13. DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000000019 · 5.72 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To study the diagnostic utility and clinical associations of immunoglobulin deposition, determined by direct immunofluorescence (DIF) in cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV).
We performed a retrospective study of all biopsy-proven LCV cases seen at Cleveland Clinic between 2007 and 2012. All LCV cases in which DIF was performed were included.
Of the 218 LCV cases, 106 cases had DIF performed and data from 88 cases were available: median (SD) age 53.3 (19.4), 52% male, 64.1% white, duration of rash 5.5 (20.8) months; follow-up 14 (19.7) months. DIF results showed any immunoglobulin and/or complement and/or fibrinogen in 70.5%, immunoglobulin A (IgA) in 36.4%, immunoglobulin M (IgM) in 21.6%, immunoglobulin G (IgG) in 11.4%. Patients with IgA deposition by DIF, compared with those without IgA, were younger, 44 (19) versus 56 (17) (P = 0.006), more likely to be white (P = 0.025) and had more organs affected by vasculitis (P = 0.002), higher incidence of gastrointestinal tract involvement (P = 0.0001) and renal disease (P = 0.006). No differences between rates of infection or malignancy were seen between DIF IgA, IgM, or IgG-positive versus negative patients.
In patients with cutaneous LCV, IgA is the most common immunoglobulin found by DIF. IgA deposition, but not IgM or IgG, is predictive of associated renal and gastrointestinal organ involvement by vasculitis. No association between the type of immunoglobulin and preexisting infection or malignancy was found. DIF results add information that is clinically relevant to the diagnosis and management of LCV.
American Journal of Dermatopathology 07/2014; 36(9). DOI:10.1097/DAD.0000000000000122 · 1.39 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) has been observed in elderly people, although it was believed to be uncommon in these subjects. The increased risks of developing end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in adults in comparison with children were highlighted by different studies; however, limited data are available on the treatment of HSP nephritis in adults.
Between 2002 and 2008, five elderly Japanese patients (>65 years old) (mean age, 68 years, ranging from 65 to 72) with severe forms of HSP nephritis were entered into a prospective study to evaluate prednisolone therapy on the outcome of nephropathy in terms of clinical symptoms and histopathological changes. The patients were considered at risk of developing chronic renal failure when they presented with a nephrotic syndrome and crescentic glomeruli.
At the last follow-up, 4-10 years after initiation of the therapy, four patients had clinically recovered and one died of lung cancer. No patients developed ESRD. The clinical outcome seemed to be correlated with glomerular activity (massive proteinuria and crescent formation). In spite of a relatively large dose of prednisolone, a few adverse effects, such as insomnia and skin lesions, were observed.
Our preliminary small study suggests that renal outcome as well as survival of elderly patients with severe forms of HSP might be altered by aggressive prednisolone therapy.
04/2015; 6:5-7. DOI:10.4137/JCM.S23093
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