The Effect of Real-Time Continuous Glucose Monitoring on Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington DC, USA.
Journal of diabetes science and technology 05/2011; 5(3):668-75. DOI: 10.1177/193229681100500320
Source: PubMed


Real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) improves hemoglobin A1c (A1C) and hypoglycemia in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus and those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on prandial insulin; however, it has not been tested in people with T2DM not taking prandial insulin. We evaluated the utility of RT-CGM in people with T2DM on a variety of treatment modalities except prandial insulin.
We conducted a prospective, 52-week, two-arm, randomized trial comparing RT-CGM (n = 50) versus self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) (n = 50) in people with T2DM not taking prandial insulin. Real-time continuous glucose monitoring was used for four 2-week cycles (2 weeks on/1 week off). All patients were managed by their usual provider. This article reports on changes in A1C 0-12 weeks.
Mean (± standard deviation) decline in A1C at 12 weeks was 1.0% (± 1.1%) in the RT-CGM group and 0.5% (± 0.8%) in the SMBG group (p = .006). There were no group differences in the net change in number or dosage of hypoglycemic medications. Those who used the RT-CGM for ≥ 48 days (per protocol) reduced their A1C by 1.2% (± 1.1%) versus 0.6% (± 1.1%) in those who used it <48 days (p = .003). Multiple regression analyses statistically adjusting for baseline A1C, an indicator for usage, and known confounders confirmed the observed differences between treatment groups were robust (p = .009). There was no improvement in weight or blood pressure.
Real-time continuous glucose monitoring significantly improves A1C compared with SMBG in patients with T2DM not taking prandial insulin. This technology might benefit a wider population of people with diabetes than previously thought.

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    • "However, in type 2 diabetes, whether retrospective CGM or real-time CGM provides superior benefit in lowering HbA1c level compared with SMBG is not known yet. In our meta-analysis, two studies used RT-CGM (Yoo et al. and Ehrhardt et al.) [31,34] and two studies analyzed data in a retrospective manner (Allen et al. and Cosson et al.) [32,33]. Both RT-CGM studies and one r-CGM study provided significant difference in lowering HbA1c level by CGM compared with SMBG. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that necessitates continuing treatment and patient self-care education. Monitoring of blood glucose to near normal level without hypoglycemia becomes a challenge in the management of diabetes. Although self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) can provide daily monitoring of blood glucose level and help to adjust therapy, it cannot detect hypoglycemic unawareness and nocturnal hypoglycemia which occurred mostly in T1DM pediatrics. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) offers continuous glucose data every 5 minutes to adjust insulin therapy especially for T1DM patients and to monitor lifestyle intervention especially for T2DM patients by care providers or even patients themselves. The main objective of this study was to assess the effects of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on glycemic control in Type 1 diabetic pediatrics and Type 2 diabetic adults by collecting randomized controlled trials from MEDLINE (pubmed), SCOPUS, CINAHL, Web of Science and The Cochrane Library up to May 2013 and historical search through the reference lists of relevant articles. There are two types of CGM device: real-time CGM and retrospective CGM and both types of the device were included in the analysis. In T1DM pediatrics, CGM use was no more effective than SMBG in reducing HbA1c [mean difference – 0.13% (95% CI -0.38% to 0.11%,]. This effect was independent of HbA1c level at baseline. Subgroup analysis indicated that retrospective CGM was not superior to SMBG [mean difference -0.05% (95% CI -0.46% to 0.35%)]. In contrast, real-time CGM revealed better effect in lowering HbA1c level compared with SMBG [mean difference -0.18% (95% CI -0.35% to -0.02%, p = 0.02)]. In T2DM adults, significant reduction in HbA1c level was detected with CGM compared with SMBG [mean difference – 0.31% (95% CI -0.6% to -0.02%, p = 0.04)]. This systematic review and meta-analysis suggested that real-time CGM can be more effective than SMBG in T1DM pediatrics, though retrospective CGM was not. CGM provided better glycemic control in T2DM adults compared with SMBG.
    Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome 07/2013; 5(1):39. DOI:10.1186/1758-5996-5-39 · 2.17 Impact Factor
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    • "In a 12-month, prospective, randomized controlled trial of real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) in people with type 2 diabetes and not taking prandial insulin, we demonstrated that intermittent RT-CGM used for a period of 12 weeks was associated with a clinically significant reduction in A1C during the same period of time compared with premeal and bedtime self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and that the improvement in A1C was sustained for at least 40 weeks after the active intervention ended (1,2). Previous studies of RT-CGM for people with type 2 diabetes (3–5), although smaller and including mostly patients taking prandial insulin, have observed similar improvements in glycemia. "
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To characterize glucose response patterns of people who wore a real-time continuous glucose monitor (RT-CGM) as an intervention to improve glycemic control. Participants had type 2 diabetes, were not taking prandial insulin, and interpreted the RT-CGM data independently.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were from the first 12 weeks of a 52-week, prospective, randomized trial comparing RT-CGM (n = 50) with self-monitoring of blood glucose (n = 50). RT-CGM was used in 8 of the first 12 weeks. A1C was collected at baseline and quarterly. This analysis included 45 participants who wore the RT-CGM ≥4 weeks. Analyses examined the RT-CGM data for common response patterns-a novel approach in this area of research. It then used multilevel models for longitudinal data, regression, and nonparametric methods to compare the patterns of A1C, mean glucose, glycemic variability, and views per day of the RT-CGM device.RESULTSThere were five patterns. For four patterns, mean glucose was lower than expected as of the first RT-CGM cycle of use given participants' baseline A1C. We named them favorable response but with high and variable glucose (n = 7); tight control (n = 14); worsening glycemia (n = 6); and incremental improvement (n = 11). The fifth was no response (n = 7). A1C, mean glucose, glycemic variability, and views per day differed across patterns at baseline and longitudinally.CONCLUSIONS The patterns identified suggest that targeting people with higher starting A1Cs, using it short-term (e.g., 2 weeks), and monitoring for worsening glycemia that might be the result of burnout may be the best approach to using RT-CGM in people with type 2 diabetes not taking prandial insulin.
    Diabetes care 11/2012; 36(4). DOI:10.2337/dc12-1225 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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    • "The rationale for this investigation was that the volume of information from RT-CGM and the visual display of that information as a trend could provide important feedback to participants on their glucose status. We recently reported that RT-CGM over 12 weeks was associated with a clinically significant reduction in A1C (1.0%) over the same period of time compared with SMBG before meals and before bedtime (0.5%) (16). We now report the legacy effects of this 12-week intervention on glycemic control and other diabetes-related outcomes in the same cohort over a total of 52 weeks. "
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    ABSTRACT: To determine whether short-time, real-time continuous glucose monitoring (RT-CGM) has long-term salutary glycemic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes who are not on prandial insulin. This was a randomized controlled trial of 100 adults with type 2 diabetes who were not on prandial insulin. This study compared the effects of 12 weeks of intermittent RT-CGM with self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) on glycemic control over a 40-week follow-up period. Subjects received diabetes care from their regular provider without therapeutic intervention from the study team. There was a significant difference in A1C at the end of the 3-month active intervention that was sustained during the follow-up period. The mean, unadjusted A1C decreased by 1.0, 1.2, 0.8, and 0.8% in the RT-CGM group vs. 0.5, 0.5, 0.5, and 0.2% in the SMBG group at 12, 24, 38, and 52 weeks, respectively (P = 0.04). There was a significantly greater decline in A1C over the course of the study for the RT-CGM group than for the SMBG group, after adjusting for covariates (P < 0.0001). The subjects who used RT-CGM per protocol (≥48 days) improved the most (P < 0.0001). The improvement in the RT-CGM group occurred without a greater intensification of medication compared with those in the SMBG group. Subjects with type 2 diabetes not on prandial insulin who used RT-CGM intermittently for 12 weeks significantly improved glycemic control at 12 weeks and sustained the improvement without RT-CGM during the 40-week follow-up period, compared with those who used only SMBG.
    Diabetes care 11/2011; 35(1):32-8. DOI:10.2337/dc11-1438 · 8.42 Impact Factor
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