Hepatoprotective effects of saponarin, isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma Wend. on cocaine-induced oxidative stress in rats.
ABSTRACT The antioxidant effect of saponarin, which is the main flavone isolated from Gypsophila trichotoma Wend., and its protection against cocaine hepatotoxicity were investigated in male Wistar rats. The animals were treated with cocaine (40 mg/kg i.p.) alone and also after 3 consecutive days of pretreatment with saponarin (80 mg/kg p.o.). After 18 hours the rats were sacrificed by decapitation. The production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione (GSH) and the activity of the following antioxidant enzymes: catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione-S-transferase were assessed in liver homogenate. Administered alone, cocaine induced significant hepatotoxicity manifested with GSH depletion and reduced antioxidant defences. Saponarin pretreatment, however, decreased cocaine toxicity both by increasing GSH levels and antioxidant enzyme activities. The results of this study proved the antioxidant activity of saponarin and its protective effect against cocaine-induced oxidative stress and hepatotoxicity.
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ABSTRACT: Medicinal agents, beside occupational and environmental agents, remain one of the most common causes for interstitial lung diseases (ILD). A major problem with ILD is the recognition of the causative agent. In some cases more or less characteristic features of presentation are described. Often, the connection between drug-use and the development of related inflammatory damage or idiosyncratic toxicities is hard to recognize and objectify. Cocaine, a xenobiotic and the most commonly used illicit drug, causes serious medical and social problems. An increasing incidence of lung toxicity related to cocaine or crack-use is being reported worldwide. However, the mechanism of the resulting lung injury is not fully understood. This review summarizes possible molecular mechanisms explaining intra-individual variability in cocaine response and lung toxicity. The importance of including pharmacogenomics in the work-up of patients with suspected drug-induced lung toxicity is highlighted.Current Medicinal Chemistry 08/2012; · 4.86 Impact Factor