Maintenance of appropriate A1C values and minimization of hyperglycemic excursions are difficult for many pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy is an alternative to multiple daily injection (MDI) therapy in this population.
Sensor-augmented pump therapy for A1C reduction (STAR 3) was a 1-yr trial that included 82 children (aged 7-12) and 74 adolescents (aged 13-18) with A1C values ranging from 7.4 to 9.5% who were randomized to either SAP or MDI therapy. Quarterly A1C values were obtained from all subjects. CGM studies were carried out at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months to quantify glycemic excursions [calculated as area under the glucose concentration-time curve (AUC)] and variability. In the SAP group, sensor compliance was recorded.
Baseline A1C values were similar in subjects randomized to the SAP (8.26 ± 0.55%) and MDI groups (8.30 ± 0.53%). All subsequent A1C values showed significant (p < 0.05) treatment group differences favoring SAP therapy. Compared with the MDI group, subjects in the SAP group were more likely to meet age-specific A1C targets and had lower AUC values for hyperglycemia with no increased risk of hypoglycemia. Glucose variability improved in the SAP group compared to the MDI group. Children wore CGM sensors more often and were more likely to reach age-specific A1C targets than adolescents.
SAP therapy allows both children and adolescents with marginally or inadequately controlled type 1 diabetes to reduce A1C values, hyperglycemic excursions, and glycemic variability in a rapid, sustainable, and safe manner.
"Further, in the last year, two industry-sponsored trials have shown significant improvements in HbA1c levels in children while also reducing time spent with blood sugar levels in the hypoglycemia range. The STAR3 trial of children using CGM showed a reduction in blood sugar level variability, favoring SAP use . In addition, the SWITCH Study Group’s trial of children and adults showed that, in patients using SAP therapy, HbA1c levels, as well as time spent with blood sugar levels in the hypoglycemia range, were reduced. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), while a relatively new technology, has the potential to transform care for children with type 1 diabetes. Some, but not all studies, have shown that CGM can significantly improve hemoglobin A1c levels and reduce time spent in the hypoglycemic range in children, particularly when used as part of sensor-augmented pump (SAP) therapy. Despite the publication of recent clinical practice guidelines suggesting CGM be offered to all children 8 years of age or older who are likely to benefit, and studies showing that younger children can also benefit, this technology is not yet commonly used by children with type 1 diabetes. Effects of CGM are enhanced when used on a near-daily basis (a use-dependent effect) and with insulin pump therapy. Therefore, coordinated strategies are needed to help children and their families initiate and continue to use this resource for diabetes care. This review introduces CGM to pediatric endocrinologists who are not yet familiar with the finer details of this technology, summarizes current data showing the benefits and limitations of CGM use in children, reviews specific case examples demonstrating when CGM can be helpful, and shows the value of both retrospective and real-time CGM. It is hoped that this information leads to discussion of this technology in pediatric endocrinology clinics as an important next step in improving the care of children with type 1 diabetes.
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology 03/2013; 2013(1):8. DOI:10.1186/1687-9856-2013-8
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Continuous glucose monitors (CGM), devices that can measure interstitial glucose in “real time,” have become widely available particularly for use in patients with diabetes, and their accuracy and ease of use have greatly improved over the last decade. A number of large and well-controlled clinical trials have firmly established their usefulness in improving metabolic control (as measured by HbA1C) and decreasing time spent in hypoglycemia in adults; however, data have been less robust proving benefit in children and adolescents. Benefits are clearly linked to near-continuous wear. Insulin dosing algorithms based on CGM glucose trends have proven useful in dissecting the large volume of data generated daily by these devices, although these are imperfect tools, particularly in children. The technology is likely to be most useful when integrated with insulin pump delivery systems (sensor augmented). In this review, we concentrate on the analysis of published results of the largest trials in adults and children, including the very young, with diabetes.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.