Botanical Flavonoids on Coronary Heart Disease

Tang Center for Herbal Medicine Research and Departments of Anesthesia and Critical Care, The Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
The American Journal of Chinese Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.76). 01/2011; 39(4):661-71. DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X1100910X
Source: PubMed


Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is one of the leading causes of death in Western countries. Prevention rather than treatment of heart disease can significantly improve patients' quality of life and reduce health care costs. Flavonoids are widely distributed in vegetables, fruits and herbal medicines. Regularly consuming botanicals, especially those containing flavonoids, has been associated with a reduction in cardiovascualar disease; thus, it is important to investigate how flavonoids improve cardiac resistance to heart disease and their related mechanisms of action. It has been shown that cardiomyocyte injury and death can result from ischemia-reperfusion, which is pathognomonic of ischemic heart disease. Massive reactive oxygen species (ROS) release at the onset of reperfusion produces cell injury and death. "Programming" the heart to either generate less ROS or to increase strategic ROS removal could reduce reperfusion response. Additionally, profuse nitric oxide (NO) release at reperfusion could be protective in "preconditioning" models. Botanical flavonoids induce preconditioning of the heart, thereby protecting against ischemia-reperfusion injury. In this article, we will discuss two herbs containing potent flavonoids, Scutellaria baicalensis and grape seed proanthocyanidin, which can potentially offer cardiac protection against ischemic heart disease.

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    • "Among the multiple effects of flavonoids, they have antioxidant properties as free radical scavengers by chelating metal ions, thereby protecting cells from free radicals and therefore lipid peroxidation [29]. Flavonoids may also reduce the oxidation of excess lipids in blood circulation by ROS that can generate cardiovascular problems [30, 31]. It can be suggested, therefore, that the presence of flavonoids in the extract administered to the mice may have affected lipid metabolism by lowering the levels of triglycerides and cholesterol. "
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    ABSTRACT: Species of Myrcia are used by indigenous people and in traditional communities in Brazil for the treatment of Diabetes mellitus. We investigated the hypoglycemic effect of the extract of leaves of Myrcia bella in diabetic mice. The chemical fingerprinting of the 70% EtOH extract characterized as main constituents flavonoid aglycones, flavonoid-O-glycosides, and acylated flavonoid-O-glycosides derivatives of quercetin and myricetin. Mice were treated with saline or extract of M. bella (300 or 600 mg/Kg b.w.) for 14 days. Body weight and water and food intake were measured every day. Fasting blood glucose was measured weekly. At the end of the treatment, blood insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and protein were measured. Glycogen content and expression of proteins of the insulin signaling pathway were measured in liver. The treatment with 600 mg/Kg reduced the fasting blood glucose in diabetic mice of the 7th day as water and food intake and increased hepatic glycogen. Total cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced in diabetic treated mice. The treatment increased the expression of IRS-1, PI3-K, and AKT in the livers of diabetic treated mice. The results indicate that the extract of the leaves of Myrcia bella has hypoglycemic properties and possibly acts to regulate glucose uptake by the liver.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 04/2014; 2014(9):543606. DOI:10.1155/2014/543606 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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    • "One of the major mediators during I/R injury in the intestine is iNOS. Numerous possible mechanisms can explain the action of iNOS in inducing injury and inflammation, including its actions on regulating apoptosis, oxygen free-radical production, and mitochondrial injury (Beck et al., 2007; Wang et al., 2011). In sepsis in mice, the increased iNOS-dependent NO production leads to the altered expression and localization of key TJ proteins, such as occludin and ZO-1, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal barrier dysfunction (Han et al., 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Berberine (BBR) has been shown to attenuate the deleterious effects of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in the brain. We evaluated the effects of BBR on intestinal tight junction (TJ) changes during mesenteric I/R. I/R was induced in rats by the occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery and reperfusion. The rats were randomized into four groups: control, BBR, I/R, and I/R + BBR. Intestinal permeability was determined by the lactulose/mannitol test. The ileum and colon were harvested to assess mucosal injury and inducible nitric oxide synthase activity. The TJ ultrastructure was studied by transmission electron microscopy. The expressions and locations of the TJ proteins, occludin and ZO-1, in the epithelium were investigated by immunofluorescence microscopy. We also used Western blot analysis to detect the distribution of TJ proteins in lipid raft fractions. Our results suggest that I/R-induced intestinal TJ dysfunction can be improved by BBR, thereby demonstrating the therapeutic potential of BBR for intestinal I/R.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 11/2013; 41(6):1297-1312. DOI:10.1142/S0192415X13500870 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    • "A complex process called myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, which involves the generation and release of reactive oxygen species and inflammatory cytokines, were implied in all cases above (Vinten-Johansen, 2004). Plenty of traditional Chinese medicine herbs have protective effects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, especially the flavonoids (Chan et al., 2011; Wang et al., 2011). They are polyphenolic compounds that isolated from various plants. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to demonstrate myocardial protective effects and possible underlying mechanisms of vitexin on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Occluding the anterior descending artery for 30 min and restoring blood perfusion for 60 min in rat established a model of myocardial I/R. The elevation of the ST segment of Electrocardiograph (ECG) was observed. The infarct size of the rat heart was assessed by triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining (TTC). LDH, CK, SOD activities and MDA content were determined. An immunohistochemical analysis was applied to measure the expression of myocardial NF-κBp65 and TNF-α. ERK/phospho-ERKand c-Jun/phospho-c-Jun protein expression was examined via Western Blot. Vitexin significantly reduced the elevation of the ST segment of ECG and myocardial infarct size. LDH and CK activities and MDA content were attenuated in serum, while SOD activity was markedly enhanced. Vitexin significantly attenuated I/R-induced increases of myocardial NF-κB and TNF-α. Moreover, Western Blot analysis presented that vitexin markedly enhanced the expression of phospho-ERK and weakened the expression of phospho-c-Jun compared to I/R group. The significant protective effect against myocardial ischemical/reperfusion injury in rat, which is exhibited by vitexin, may be related to its antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects by regulating inflammatory cytokines and the MAPK pathway.
    The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 11/2013; 41(6):1251-1266. DOI:10.1142/S0192415X13500845 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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