2011 update on pancreas transplantation: comprehensive trend analysis of 25,000 cases followed up over the course of twenty-four years at the International Pancreas Transplant Registry (IPTR).

Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health, University of Arizona, 1295 N. Martin, Tucson AZ 85724, USA.
The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2011; 8(1):6-16. DOI: 10.1900/RDS.2011.8.6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT This study aimed to analyze the outcome of pancreas and pancreas-kidney transplantations based on the comprehensive follow-up data reported to the International Pancreas Transplant Registry (IPTR).
As of December 2010, more than 35,000 pancreas transplantations have been reported to the IPTR: more than 24,000 transplantations in the US and more than 12,000 outside the US. Cases with follow-up information until March 2011 were included in the analysis.
Pancreas transplantations in diabetic patients were divided into 3 categories: those performed simultaneously with a kidney (SPK) (75%), those given after a previous kidney transplantation (PAK) (18%), and pancreas transplantation alone (PTA) (7%). The total number of pancreas transplantations steadily increased until 2004 but has since declined. The largest decrease was seen in PAK, which decreased by 50% from 2004 through 2010. Comparatively, the number of SPK decreased by 7% during this time. Era analysis of US transplantations between 1987 and 2010 showed changes in recipient and donor characteristics. Recipient age at transplantation increased significantly as well as transplantations in type 2 diabetes patients. The trend over time was towards tighter donor criteria. There was a concentration on younger donors, preferable trauma victims, with short preservation time. Surgical techniques for the drainage of the pancreatic duct changed over time, too. Now enteric drainage is the predominantly used technique in combination with systemic drainage of the venous effluent of the pancreas graft. Immunosuppressive protocols developed towards antibody induction therapy with tacrolimus and MMF as maintenance therapy. The rate of transplantations with steroid avoidance increased over time in all 3 categories. These changes have led to improved patient and graft survival. Patient survival now reaches over 95% at one year post-transplant and over 83% after 5 years. The best graft survival was found in SPK with 86% pancreas and 93% kidney graft function at one year. PAK pancreas graft function reached 80%, and PTA pancreas graft function reached 78% at one year. In all 3 categories, early technical graft loss rates decreased significantly to 8-9%. Likewise, the 1-year immunological graft loss rate also decreased: in SPK, the immunological 1-year graft loss rate was 1.8%, in PAK 3.7%, and in PTA 6.0%.
Patient survival and graft function improved significantly over the course of 24 years of pancreas transplantation in all 3 categories. With further reduction in surgical complications and improvements in immunosuppressive protocols, pancreas transplantation offers excellent outcomes for patients with labile diabetes.

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Available from: Angelika C Gruessner, Jul 08, 2015
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    • "Although type II diabetes was a contraindication to pancreas transplantation, initial intentional SPK transplantation with type II diabetes showed that augmentation of endogenous insulin secretion from pancreas allograft in patients with C-peptideÀpositive, insulin-requiring diabetes resulted in insulin independence, improved glucose metabolism, and enhanced quality of life [14] [15]. The operative procedure changes, optimizing immunosuppression, careful pretransplantation evaluation, and improved graft monitoring have become standard in the last decade and resulted in excellent 5-year patient, kidney, and pancreas graft survival [2] [16]. However, technical failure and immunological graft loss is still a problem in pancreas transplantation and requires further investigation. "
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    ABSTRACT: BK polyomavirus-associated nephropathy (BKVAN) is an important cause of renal allograft loss. Immunosuppression therapy in renal transplant recipients can lead to the reactivation of latent BK polyomavirus (BKV) infection, leading to BK viruria and viremia. This single-center study aimed to clarify the association between quantitative measurement of BKV DNA and the progression of BKV infection, and secondly to identify the risk factors associated with the evolution of viruria to viremia. We retrospectively analyzed 266 patients who underwent renal transplantation in our center from October 2006 to February 2013. We examined the viral loads of BKV in urine and plasma by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay after screening all of the recipients by urinary sediment examination. BKVAN was diagnosed by histological examination with immunohistochemistry of the large T antigen in biopsy specimens. Overall, 22 recipients showed BK viruria alone, whereas 22 progressed to BK viremia, of which 6 patients were diagnosed with BKVAN. Among BKVAN patients, 2 cases progressed to graft loss at 59 months and 31 months after diagnosis, respectively. In BKVAN group, the plasma viral loads were significantly higher than those in viremia without nephropathy (P < .001). Multivariate analysis revealed that the evolution of viruria to viremia was associated with recipient age over 55 years (odds ratio, 32.08; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-489.5) and tacrolimus exposure (odds ratio, 11.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-107.04). The progression from viremia to BKVAN was strongly associated with increasing plasma viral loads for BKV DNA. The cutoff value of 1 × 10(4) copies/mL for plasma viral loads could differentiate between BKVAN and viremia alone. Further, recipient age over 55 years and tacrolimus exposure were independently associated with the evolution of viruria to viremia.
    Transplantation Proceedings 03/2014; 46(2):556-9. DOI:10.1016/j.transproceed.2013.11.114 · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    • "In principle, pancreas transplants offer the promise of excellent outcomes for patients with diabetes. Indeed, stricter donor criteria , as well as improvements in surgical techniques and immunosuppression, have led to improved success rates, with the majority of patients no longer needing insulin therapy after the transplant [Gruessner, 2011]. In practice, the vast majority of pancreas transplants are done in patients who have end-stage renal disease and also need a kidney transplant; this is partly due to the shortage of donor organs, but also because the risks of the necessary post-transplant immunosuppressant therapy usually outweigh the health risks of diabetes itself. "
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the known benefits of a healthy lifestyle, many individuals find it hard to maintain such a lifestyle in our modern world, which facilitates sedentary behavior and overeating. As a consequence, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus is predicted to increase dramatically over the coming years. Will developments in treatments be able to counteract the resulting impact on morbidity and mortality? The various lines of research can be grouped into three main categories: technological, biological, and pharmacological. Technological solutions are focused on the delivery of insulin and glucagon via an artificial pancreas, and components of the system are already in use, suggesting this option may well be available within the next 10 years. Of the biological solutions, pancreas transplants seem unlikely to be used widely, and islet cell transplants have also been hampered by a lack of appropriate donor tissue and graft survival after transplant. However, significant progress has been made in these areas, and additional research suggests manipulating other cell types to replace beta cells may be a viable option in the longer term. The last category, pharmacological research, appears the most promising for significantly reducing the burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In recent years, research has concentrated on reducing blood glucose, and the increasing pace of research has been reflected in a growing number of antidiabetic agents. In the past few years, studies of the complementary approach of protecting cells from the damaging effects of high blood glucose have also been reported, as has research into the control of energy intake and energy expenditure. Evidence from studies of dietary restriction and bariatric surgery suggests it may be possible to reset metabolism to effectively cure diabetes, and research into pharmacological agents that could selectively restore energy balance is currently the most exciting prospect for future treatments for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    Therapeutic advances in endocrinology and metabolism 10/2012; 3(5):163-73. DOI:10.1177/2042018812465639
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    ABSTRACT: Currently, 25-30 pancreas transplantations per year are carried out in type 1 diabetes (T1D) recipients residing in Czech Republic. Most of the recipients are transplanted together with kidney allografts, but pancreas is also transplanted alone in selected patients with brittle diabetes. Since 2005, the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine (IKEM) islet transplant program was initiated as complementary therapeutic modality. The aim of this paper was to analyze the transplant program at our clinical center, and to examine the survival of recipients, and their pancreas, kidney, and islet grafts. Patient and graft survival rates were evaluated in the following three categories using Kaplan-Meier test: simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplantation (SPKTx), pancreas transplantation alone (PTA), and islet transplantation (ITx). Three hundred and ninety SPKTx, 34 PTA and 44 ITx were carried out between 1983 and 2010. One- and 5-year patient survival rates were 92 % and 81% in SPKTx, respectively. In SPKTx, the 1-year survival rate of pancreas grafts was 78%, and the 5-year rate was 66%. Kidney graft survival rates were 89% and 79%, respectively, after the same follow-up periods. In the PTA category, recipient survivals were 100% after 1 year, and 92% after 3 years. 70% and 65% of pancreatic grafts were working properly at 1 and 3-year follow-ups, respectively. To date, we have carried out 44 islet transplantations in 31 recipients. Islet function (C-peptide ≥ 0.2 ng/ml) was documented in 60% of recipients after 12 months. So far, only 3 patients remained free of exogenous insulin. While SPKTx is a well established treatment for uremic T1D patients, ITx represents an emerging complementary treatment modality. The latter is especially suitable for high-risk recipients, but routine clinical application is still hampered by the limited availability of usable organ transplants and viability of transplanted islets.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2011; 8(1):35-43. DOI:10.1900/RDS.2011.8.35