Impact of high-fat diet and obesity on energy balance and fuel utilization during the metabolic challenge of lactation.
ABSTRACT The effects of obesity and a high-fat (HF) diet on whole body and tissue-specific metabolism of lactating dams and their offspring were examined in C57/B6 mice. Female mice were fed low-fat (LF) or HF diets before and throughout pregnancy and lactation. HF-fed mice were segregated into lean (HF-Ln) and obese (HF-Ob) groups before pregnancy by their weight gain response. Compared to LF-Ln dams, HF-Ln, and HF-Ob dams exhibited a greater positive energy balance (EB) and increased dietary fat retention in peripheral tissues (P < 0.05). HF-Ob dams had greater dietary fat retention in liver and adipose compared to HF-Ln dams (P < 0.05). De novo synthesized fat was decreased in tissues and milk from HF-fed dams compared to LF-Ln dams (P < 0.05). However, less dietary and de novo synthesized fat was found in the HF-Ob mammary glands compared to HF-Ln (P < 0.05). Obesity was associated with reduced milk triglycerides relative to lean controls (P < 0.05). Compared to HF diet alone obesity has additional adverse affects, impairing both lipid metabolism as well as milk fat production. Growth rates of LF-Ln litters were lower than HF-Ln and HF-Ob litters (P < 0.05). Total energy expenditure (TEE) of HF-Ob litters was reduced relative to HF-Ln litters, whereas their respiratory exchange ratios (RERs) were increased (P < 0.05). Collectively these data show that consumption of a HF diet significantly affects maternal and neonatal metabolism and that maternal obesity can independently alter these responses.
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ABSTRACT: No evidence-based recommendations exist concerning what dietary macronutrient composition optimizes weight loss during lactation while maintaining milk production. The study was designed to test the following hypotheses: compared with a reduced-calorie, high-carbohydrate (H-CHO) diet, an isonitrogenous, isocaloric high-fat (H-F) diet will decrease milk production and carbohydrate oxidation, increase gluconeogenesis and hexoneogenesis, and not affect energy balance. Seven healthy lactating mothers and their infants were studied on 2 occasions in random order for 8 d separated by 1-2 wk. On one occasion, the subjects received the H-F (30% of energy as carbohydrate and 55% as fat) diet and on the other occasion received the H-CHO (60% of energy as carbohydrate and 25% as fat) diet. Milk production, infant intakes, and substrate and hormone concentrations were measured. Glucose rates of appearance, production, gluconeogenesis, glycogenolysis, and hexoneogenesis were measured by using stable-isotope gas chromatography-mass spectrometric techniques, and energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were measured by using indirect calorimetry. Milk volume, lactose, and protein concentrations were unaffected. Milk fat, energy, and infant intakes were higher (P < 0.05) during the H-F diet. Neither gluconeogenesis nor hexoneogenesis was different. During the H-F diet, energy expenditure and fat and protein oxidation rates were higher (P < 0.05), and the daily energy balance deficit was greater (P < 0.01). Milk fat, energy output, and energy expenditure were higher during the H-F diet, which resulted in a greater negative energy balance. The lactating mothers adapted to a low carbohydrate intake by decreasing carbohydrate oxidation. Additional studies are warranted to determine whether a hypocaloric H-F diet might promote weight loss to a greater extent than the H-CHO diet while maintaining milk production.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 05/2009; 89(6):1821-7. · 6.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Maternal obesity is increasing, and it is known that the intrauterine experience programs fetal and newborn metabolism. However, the relative contributions of pre- or postnatal factors are unknown. We hypothesized that maternal overnutrition caused by long-term maternal obesity would exert a stronger detrimental impact than postnatal overnutrition on offspring metabolic homeostasis, with additional postnatal overnutrition exaggerating these alterations. Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to chow or high-fat cafeteria diet for 5 wk before mating and throughout gestation and lactation. On postnatal d 1, litters were adjusted to three per litter to induce postnatal overnutrition (vs. 12 in control). Hypothalamic appetite regulators neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin, glucose transporter 4, and lipid metabolic markers were measured. At postnatal d 20, male pups born of obese dams, or those overnourished postnatally, were 42% heavier than controls; combining both interventions led to 80% greater body weight. Maternal obesity increased pup adiposity and led to glucose intolerance in offspring; these were exaggerated by additional postnatal overnutrition during lactation. Maternal obesity was also linked to hyperlipidemia in offspring and reduced hypothalamic neuropeptide Y and increased proopiomelanocortin mRNA expression. Postnatal overnutrition of offspring from obese dams amplified these hypothalamic changes. Both maternal and postnatal overnutrition reduced muscle glucose transporter 4. Adipose carnitine palmitoyl-transferase-1 and adipose triglyceride lipase mRNA was up-regulated only by postnatal overnutrition. Maternal overnutrition appears to alter central appetite circuits and promotes early-onset obesity; postnatal overnutrition interacted to cause peripheral lipid and glucose metabolic disorders, supporting the critical message to reduce early-life adverse nutritional impact.Endocrinology 11/2008; 149(11):5348-56. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Milk production, dietary intake, and body composition of 45 lactating women were monitored for 4 months postpartum to examine the interrelationships of these maternal variables. A 3-day dietary record, 24-h test-weighing for determination of milk production, 24-h milk collection, anthropometric measurements, and water displacement for estimation of body fat were performed monthly. The overall mean (SD) energy intake was 2186 (463) kcal/day. Milk production (g/day) averaged 751 (130), 725 (131), 723 (114), and 740 (128) during the 4 sequential months. Weight postpartum was 64.6 (9.1) kg and was 59.3 (10.5) kg at 4 months. Body fat determined by water displacement averaged 28 (7)% at 1 month and 26 (8)% at 4 months. Estimations of body fat from skinfold thickness ranged from 28 (5)% postpartum to 27 (5)% at 4 months. Energy balance calculations based on the energy available from the diet plus the energy derived from tissue mobilization, minus the caloric equivalent of the milk, indicated sufficient energy available for maintenance and activity needs. Thus, it appears that successful lactation is compatible with gradual weight reduction and attainable with energy intakes less than current recommendations.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 03/1984; 39(2):296-306. · 6.50 Impact Factor