Sirtuin 1 retards hyperphosphatemia-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells.
ABSTRACT Arterial calcification is associated with cardiovascular disease as a complication of advanced atherosclerosis. Aged vascular cells manifest some morphological features of a senescent phenotype. Recent studies have demonstrated that mammalian sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase, is an exciting target for cardiovascular disease management. Here, we investigated the role of SIRT1 in a calcification model of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs).
In adenine-induced renal failure rats with hyperphosphatemia, massive calcification was induced in the aortic media. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SAβ-gal) activity, a marker of cellular senescence, in medial SMCs was significantly increased, and its induction was positively associated with the degree of calcification. In cultured SMCs, inorganic phosphate (Pi) stimulation dose-dependently increased SAβ-gal-positive cells, and Pi-induced senescence was associated with downregulation of SIRT1 expression, leading to p21 activation. The activation via SIRT1 downregulation was blunted by inhibition of Pi cotransporter. Activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol significantly reduced the senescence-associated calcification. Conversely, SIRT1 knockdown by small interfering RNA accelerated the Pi-induced SMC senescence and subsequent calcification. In addition, SIRT1 knockdown induced phenotypic change from a differentiated state to osteoblast-like cells. The senescence-related SMC calcification was completely prevented by p21 knockdown. In addition to Pi-induced premature senescence, SMCs with replicative senescence were also more sensitive to Pi-induced calcification compared with young SMCs, and this finding was attributable to augmented p21 expression.
SIRT1 plays an essential role in preventing hyperphosphatemia-induced arterial calcification via inhibition of osteoblastic transdifferentiation. In addition, Pi-induced SMC calcification may be associated with both premature and replicative cellular senescence.
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ABSTRACT: The development of human calcified aortic stenosis (AS) includes age-dependent processes that have been involved in atherosclerosis, such as infiltration of macrophages in aortic valves, which then promote production of many pro-inflammatory cytokines, including resistin. However, the molecular mechanisms contributing to these processes are not established. Since Sirt1 has been shown to modulate macrophage biology and inflammation, we examined its levels in human AS and tested its impact on resistin expression. Sirt1 mRNA (p = 0.01) and protein (p<0.05) levels were reduced in explanted valves from AS patients (n = 51) compared to those from control (n = 11) patients. Sirt1 mRNA levels were negatively associated with resistin mRNA levels quantified in AS valves (p = 0.02). Stimulation of Sirt1 by resveratrol or virus-driven overexpression robustly diminished resistin mRNA and protein expression in macrophages, whereas down-regulation of Sirt1 triggered a large increase in resistin expression. These effects were direct, as chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that Sirt1 physically interacted with the resistin promoter region at an AP-1 response element. Moreover, Sirt1 blocked c-jun-induced resistin transactivation in gene reporter assays. These findings demonstrate that, in calcified AS, levels of Sirt1 are reduced whereas those of resistin are increased within aortic valve leaflets. Our results also suggest that this loss of Sirt1 expression alleviates its inhibition of resistin transcription in macrophages. Although the overall contribution of this process to the underlying mechanisms for AS disease development remains unresolved, these observations suggest that modification of Sirt1 expression and/or activity could represent a novel approach against inflammation in AS.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(4):e35110. · 4.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), through association with the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), exerts control over a novel endocrine axis consisting of the bone-derived hormone FGF23, and the kidney-expressed klotho, CYP27B1, and CYP24A1 genes, which together prevent hyperphosphatemia/ectopic calcification and govern the levels of 1,25D to maintain bone mineral integrity while promoting optimal function of other vital tissues. When occupied by 1,25D, VDR interacts with RXR to form a heterodimer that binds to VDREs in the region of genes directly controlled by 1,25D (e.g., FGF23, klotho, Npt2c, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1). By recruiting complexes of comodulators, activated VDR initiates a series of events that induces or represses the transcription of genes encoding proteins such as: the osteocyte-derived hormone, FGF23; the renal anti-senescence factor and protein co-receptor for FGF23, klotho; other mediators of phosphate transport including Npt2a/c; and vitamin D hormone metabolic enzymes, CYP27B1 and CYP24A1. The mechanism whereby osteocytes are triggered to release FGF23 is yet to be fully defined, but 1,25D, phosphate, and leptin appear to play major roles. The kidney responds to FGF23 to elicit CYP24A1-catalyzed detoxification of the 1,25D hormone while also repressing both Npt2a/c to mediate phosphate elimination and CYP27B1 to limit de novo 1,25D synthesis. Comprehension of these skeletal and renal actions of 1,25D should facilitate the development of novel mimetics to prevent ectopic calcification, chronic renal and vascular disease, and promote healthful aging.Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 09/2011; 13(1):57-69. · 3.17 Impact Factor
Article: Angiogenesis Inhibitor Vasohibin-1 Enhances Stress Resistance of Endothelial Cells via Induction of SOD2 and SIRT1.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Vasohibin-1 (VASH1) is isolated as an endothelial cell (EC)-produced angiogenesis inhibitor. We questioned whether VASH1 plays any role besides angiogenesis inhibition, knocked-down or overexpressed VASH1 in ECs, and examined the changes of EC property. Knock-down of VASH1 induced premature senescence of ECs, and those ECs were easily killed by cellular stresses. In contrast, overexpression of VASH1 made ECs resistant to premature senescence and cell death caused by cellular stresses. The synthesis of VASH1 was regulated by HuR-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. We sought to define the underlying mechanism. VASH1 increased the expression of (superoxide dismutase 2) SOD2, an enzyme known to quench reactive oxygen species (ROS). Simultaneously, VASH1 augmented the synthesis of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an anti-aging protein, which improved stress tolerance. Paraquat generates ROS and causes organ damage when administered in vivo. More VASH1 (+/-) mice died due to acute lung injury caused by paraquat. Intratracheal administration of an adenovirus vector encoding human VASH1 augmented SOD2 and SIRT1 expression in the lungs and prevented acute lung injury caused by paraquat. Thus, VASH1 is a critical factor that improves the stress tolerance of ECs via the induction of SOD2 and SIRT1.PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(10):e46459. · 4.09 Impact Factor