Article

Incidence of endometriosis by study population and diagnostic method: the ENDO study

Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland 20852, USA.
Fertility and sterility (Impact Factor: 4.3). 06/2011; 96(2):360-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2011.05.087
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To estimate the incidence of endometriosis in an operative cohort of women seeking clinical care and in a matched population cohort to delineate more fully the scope and magnitude of endometriosis in the context of and beyond clinical care.
Matched-exposure cohort design.
Surgical centers in the Salt Lake City, Utah, and San Francisco, California, areas.
The operative cohort comprised 495 women undergoing laparoscopy/laparotomy between 2007 and 2009, and the population cohort comprised 131 women from the surgical centers' catchment areas.
None.
Incidence of endometriosis by diagnostic method in the operative cohort and by pelvic magnetic resonance imaged (MRI) disease in the population cohort.
Endometriosis incidence in the operative cohort ranged by two orders of magnitude by diagnostic method: 0.7% for only histology, 7% for only MRI, and 41% for visualized disease. Endometriosis staging was skewed toward minimal (58%) and mild disease (15%). The incidence of MRI-diagnosed endometriosis was 11% in the population cohort.
Endometriosis incidence is dependent on the diagnostic method and choice of sampling framework. Conservatively, 11% of women have undiagnosed endometriosis at the population level, with implications for the design and interpretation of etiologic research.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Joseph B Stanford, Jun 22, 2015
2 Followers
 · 
373 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the association between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and uterine fibroids, we used previously collected data from a cohort of women aged 18-44 years undergoing laparoscopy or laparotomy at 14 participating hospital surgical centers (n=473). POP concentrations were measured in omental fat and serum. Presence of fibroids was defined on the basis of a postoperative diagnosis (n=99). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each POP by biologic medium were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for identified covariates. Concentrations were higher in omental fat than in serum for all POPs. Serum p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) was the only POP associated with fibroids (per 1-SD increase in log-transformed p,p'-DDE OR (95% CI): 1.37 (1.05-1.80)). In analyses excluding women diagnosed with endometriosis, a number of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) measured in omental fat were associated with fibroids (PCB 99: 1.64 (1.08, 2.49); PCB 138: 1.64 (1.03, 2.59); PCB 146: 1.54 (1.01, 2.37); PCB 153: 1.88 (1.12, 3.13); PCB 196: 1.60 (1.02, 2.51); PCB 206: 1.52 (1.01, 2.29)). Although exploratory, our study suggests that PCBs may be associated with fibroids in the absence of other gynecologic disorders such as endometriosis, but the associations varied by biologic media with more POPs emerging when quantified in fat.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 7 May 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.31.
    Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology 05/2014; 25(3). DOI:10.1038/jes.2014.31 · 3.05 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There has been limited study of trace elements and endometriosis. Using a matched cohort design, 473 women aged 18-44 years were recruited into an operative cohort, along with 131 similarly-aged women recruited into a population cohort. Endometriosis was defined as surgically visualized disease in the operative cohort, and magnetic resonance imaging diagnosed disease in the population cohort. Twenty trace elements in urine and three in blood were quantified using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Logistic regression estimated the adjusted odds (aOR) of endometriosis diagnosis for each element by cohort. No association was observed between any element and endometriosis in the population cohort. In the operative cohort, blood cadmium was associated with a reduced odds of diagnosis (aOR=0.55; 95% CI: 0.31, 0.98), while urinary chromium and copper reflected an increased odds (aOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.21, 3.19; aOR=2.66; 95% CI: 1.26, 5.64, respectively). The varied associations underscore the need for continued research.
    Reproductive Toxicology 07/2013; 42. DOI:10.1016/j.reprotox.2013.05.009 · 2.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An equivocal literature exists regarding the relation between persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) and endometriosis in women, with differences attributed to methodologies. We assessed the association between POPs and the odds of an endometriosis diagnosis and the consistency of findings by biological medium and study cohort. Using a matched cohort design, we assembled an operative cohort of women 18-44 years of age undergoing laparoscopy or laparotomy at 14 participating clinical centers from 2007 to 2009 and a population-based cohort matched on age and residence within a 50-mile catchment area of the clinical centers. Endometriosis was defined as visualized disease in the operative cohort and as diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging in the population cohort. Logistic regression analysis was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each POP in relation to an endometriosis diagnosis, with separate models run for each medium (omental fat in the operative cohort, serum in both cohorts) and cohort. Adjusted models included age, body mass index, breast-feeding conditional on parity, cotinine, and lipids. Concentrations were higher in omental fat than in serum for all POPs. In the operative cohort, γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) was the only POP with a significant positive association with endometriosis [per 1-SD increase in log-transformed γ-HCH: adjusted OR (AOR) = 1.27; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.59]; β-HCH was the only significant predictor in the population cohort (per 1-SD increase in log-transformed β-HCH: AOR = 1.72; 95% CI: 1.09, 2.72). Using a matched cohort design, we found that cohort-specific and biological-medium-specific POPs were associated with endometriosis, underscoring the importance of methodological considerations when interpreting findings.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 03/2012; 120(6):811-6. DOI:10.1289/ehp.1104432 · 7.03 Impact Factor