Stroke Intervention Catheter-Based Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke

Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, The John Ochsner Heart and Vascular Institute, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, Louisiana 70121, USA.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology (Impact Factor: 15.34). 07/2011; 58(2):101-16. DOI: 10.1016/j.jacc.2011.02.049
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The majority (>80%) of the three-quarters of a million strokes that will occur in the United States this year are ischemic in nature. The treatment of acute ischemic stroke is very similar to acute myocardial infarction, which requires timely reperfusion therapy for optimal results. The majority of patients with acute ischemic stroke do not receive any form of reperfusion therapy, unlike patients with acute myocardial infarction. Improving outcomes for acute stroke will require patient education to encourage early presentation, an aggressive expansion of qualified hospitals, and willing providers and early imaging strategies to match patients with their best options for reperfusion therapy to minimize complications.

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    ABSTRACT: The acute ischemic strokes amenable to intraarterial therapy probably number no more than 20,000 per year in the United States. The future demand for intraarterial reperfusion techniques may change, but the fraction of patients who require intraarterial thrombolysis is currently rather low, and the number of neurointerventionists is adequate. Each hospital caring for patients with acute stroke will need to determine its own demand for intraarterial therapy and employ an adequate supply of qualified neurointerventionists available to meet demand. Comprehensive stroke centers are now being designated and hopefully will foster a rational, regionalized approach to the delivery of endovascular therapies for stroke.
    Neurosurgical FOCUS 01/2014; 36(1):E8. DOI:10.3171/2013.9.FOCUS13372 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The evolution of reperfusion therapy in acute myocardial infarction and acute ischaemic stroke has many similarities: thrombolysis is superior to placebo, intra-arterial thrombolysis is not superior to intravenous (i.v.), facilitated intervention is of questionable value, and direct mechanical recanalization without thrombolysis is proven (myocardial infarction) or promising (stroke) to be superior to thrombolysis-but only when started with no or minimal delay. However, there are also substantial differences. Direct catheter-based thrombectomy in acute ischaemic stroke is more difficult than primary angioplasty (in ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI]) in many ways: complex pre-intervention diagnostic workup, shorter time window for clinically effective reperfusion, need for an emergent multidisciplinary approach from the first medical contact, vessel tortuosity, vessel fragility, no evidence available about dosage and combination of peri-procedural antithrombotic drugs, risk of intracranial bleeding, unclear respective roles of thrombolysis and mechanical intervention, lower number of suitable patients, and thus longer learning curves of the staff. Thus, starting acute stroke interventional programme requires a lot of learning, discipline, and humility. Randomized trials comparing different reperfusion strategies provided similar results in acute ischaemic stroke as in STEMI. Thus, it might be expected that also a future randomized trial comparing direct (primary) catheter-based thrombectomy vs. i.v. thrombolysis could show superiority of the mechanical intervention if it would be initiated without delay. Such randomized trial is needed to define the role of mechanical intervention alone in acute stroke treatment.
    European Heart Journal 10/2013; 35(3). DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/eht409 · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: This study sought to assess the feasibility and safety of a recently described technique of mechanical recanalization with the help of a stent-like device. BACKGROUND: In the special group of acute stroke patients with an intracranial large vessel occlusion, intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator on its own leads to a good clinical outcome (mRS ≤2) in only 15% to 25% of cases. The aforementioned technique of mechanical recanalization showed very promising clinical results. METHODS: Forty patients presenting within 6 h from stroke symptom onset were enrolled. Mechanical recanalization was performed using a Solitaire FR revascularization device. The primary endpoint of the study was the clinical outcome rated with the help of the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) after 90 days. RESULTS: Twenty-four patients (60%) showed a good clinical outcome (mRS ≤2) at 90 days. One symptomatic hemorrhage was detected on follow-up computed tomography. The death rate was 12.5% (5 patients). Successful recanalization (Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction score ≥2b) of the target vessel was achieved in 95% of the patients with a mean of 1.8 runs with the device. CONCLUSIONS: The ReFlow (Mechanical Recanalization With Flow Restoration in Acute Ischemic Stroke) study shows that mechanical recanalization with flow restoration is highly effective in stroke patients with a large intracranial vessel occlusion presenting within 4.5 h after symptom onset. (Mechanical Recanalization With Flow Restoration in Acute Ischemic Stroke [ReFlow]; NCT01210729).
    JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 03/2013; 6(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jcin.2012.11.013 · 7.44 Impact Factor


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