Successful Linking of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Database to Social Security Data to Examine Survival After Cardiac Operations
ABSTRACT Long-term evaluation of cardiothoracic surgical outcomes is a major goal of The Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS). Linking the STS Database to the Social Security Death Master File (SSDMF) allows for the verification of "life status." This study demonstrates the feasibility of linking the STS Database to the SSDMF and examines longitudinal survival after cardiac operations.
For all operations in the STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database performed in 2008 in patients with an available Social Security Number, the SSDMF was searched for a matching Social Security Number. Survival probabilities at 30 days and 1 year were estimated for nine common operations.
A Social Security Number was available for 101,188 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting, 12,336 patients undergoing isolated aortic valve replacement, and 6,085 patients undergoing isolated mitral valve operations. One-year survival for isolated coronary artery bypass grafting was 88.9% (6,529 of 7,344) with all vein grafts, 95.2% (84,696 of 88,966) with a single mammary artery graft, 97.4% (4,422 of 4,540) with bilateral mammary artery grafts, and 95.6% (7,543 of 7,890) with all arterial grafts. One-year survival was 92.4% (11,398 of 12,336) for isolated aortic valve replacement (95.6% [2,109 of 2,206] with mechanical prosthesis and 91.7% [9,289 of 10,130] with biologic prosthesis), 86.5% (2,312 of 2,674) for isolated mitral valve replacement (91.7% [923 of 1,006] with mechanical prosthesis and 83.3% [1,389 of 1,668] with biologic prosthesis), and 96.0% (3,275 of 3,411) for isolated mitral valve repair.
Successful linkage to the SSDMF has substantially increased the power of the STS Database. These longitudinal survival data from this large multi-institutional study provide reassurance about the durability and long-term benefits of cardiac operations and constitute a contemporary benchmark for survival after cardiac operations.
Conference Paper: Field emitter array development for microwave applications. II[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Microfabricated field emitter arrays are being used in an ongoing DARPA/NRL program as a means for gating or prebunching electrons in a microwave amplifier tube. The goals of the program are to demonstrate 10 dB gain at 50 W and 10 GHz in a gated Klystrode amplifier tube with 50% efficiency. The proposed cathode specifications call for 160 mA peak emission and 10 GHz emission modulation from an annular emitter array having a 600 mu m outer diameter and an inner diameter to be determined by transconductance and capacitance requirements. Experimental results have shown an average array capacitance of 6 nF/cm(2), and that a transconductance of 1 mu S/tip can be achieved at emitter-tip loadings of 10 mu A/tip. Calculations based on these results show that emitter arrays having 0.4 mu m diam gate apertures on 1 mu m centers, a 600 mu m outer diameter, and a 560 mu m inner diameter should meet the tube specifications. Such arrays have been fabricated and shown to have essentially the same characteristics (Fowler/Nordheim coefficients) as the test cathodes used to develop the design parameters. These microwave cathodes have been successfully modulated at 10 GHz rates in an experimental Klystrode amplifier tube at CPI (formerly the Varian Associates Microwave Power Tube Division), and microwave output power has been achieved. Ongoing trials are showing steady pro, toward the program goals. (C) 1998 American Vacuum Society. [S0734-211X(98)06002-8].Plasma Science, 1997. IEEE Conference Record - Abstracts., 1997 IEEE International Conference on; 06/1997
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ABSTRACT: According to The International Society for Nomenclature of Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), "Heterotaxy is synonymous with 'visceral heterotaxy' and 'heterotaxy syndrome'. Heterotaxy is defined as an abnormality where the internal thoraco-abdominal organs demonstrate abnormal arrangement across the left-right axis of the body. By convention, heterotaxy does not include patients with either the expected usual or normal arrangement of the internal organs along the left-right axis, also known as 'situs solitus', or patients with complete mirror-imaged arrangement of the internal organs along the left-right axis also known as `situs inversus'." or patients with complete mirror-image arrangement of the internal organs along the left-right axis, also known as situs inversus. The purpose of this article is to review the data about heterotaxy in the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) Congenital Heart Surgery Database. The investigators examined all index operations in the STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database over 12 years from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2009, inclusive. This analysis resulted in a cohort of 77 153 total index operations. Of these, 1505 operations (1.95%) were performed in patients with heterotaxy. Of the 1505 index operations performed in patients with heterotaxy, 1144 were in patients with asplenia and 361 were in patients with polysplenia. In every STS -EACTS Congenital Heart Surgery Mortality Category, discharge mortality is higher in patients with heterotaxy compared with patients without heterotaxy (EACTS = European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery). Discharge mortality after systemic to pulmonary artery shunt is 6.6% in a cohort of all single-ventricle patients except those with heterotaxy, whereas it is 10.8% in single-ventricle patients with heterotaxy. Discharge mortality after Fontan is 1.8% in a cohort of all single-ventricle patients except those with heterotaxy, whereas it is 4.2% in single-ventricle patients with heterotaxy. The STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database is largest congenital heart surgery database in North America. This review of data from the STS Congenital Heart Surgery Database allows for unique documentation of practice patterns and outcomes. From this analysis, it is clear that heterotaxy is a challenging problem with increased discharge mortality in most subgroups.04/2011; 2(2):278-286. DOI:10.1177/2150135110397670
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ABSTRACT: Advances in critical care medicine have allowed for improved care of patients requiring prolonged intensive care unit length of stay (prICULOS) after cardiac operations, yet little is known regarding their eventual outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine short- and long-term outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac operations with prICULOS. All cases of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), aortic valve, mitral valve, and combined CABG/valve surgical procedures performed at a single institution from July 2002 to July 2007 were identified. All-cause mortality in patients discharged alive from the hospital was determined until December 2007 through linkage with the Social Security Death Index. Patients who experienced intraoperative death or those with missing or invalid social security numbers were excluded. The definition of prICULOS was total ICULOS greater than 7 days. A total of 3,478 patients met inclusion criteria. One hundred thirty-seven of three thousand four hundred seventy-eight patients (3.9%) experienced prICULOS. These patients were more likely to be older than 70 years (55.5% versus 30.5%; p<0.0001) and to have had recent myocardial infarction (28.5% versus 20.1%; p=0.02), previous cardiac operation (18.3% versus 6.9%; p<0.0001), and emergent status (9.5% versus 1.6%; p<0.0001). They experienced greater in-hospital mortality (37.2% versus 1.7%; p<0.0001) and those who were discharged alive had worse long-term survival (log-rank, p<0.0001). After risk adjustment, prICULOS emerged as a significant predictor of in-hospital death (odds ratio [OR] 20.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.9-33.7) and decreased long-term survival (hazard ratio [HR] 2.9; 95% CI, 2.0-4.3). Patients with prICULOS after cardiac operations have worse overall outcomes. These data may be used to inform these patients and their families of realistic expectations regarding their clinical course.The Annals of thoracic surgery 12/2011; 93(2):565-9. DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.10.024