Surgery for azoospermia in the Indian patient: Why is it different?

Department of Urology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
Indian Journal of Urology 01/2011; 27(1):98-101. DOI: 10.4103/0970-1591.78441
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Obstructive azoospermia is one of the few surgically correctable causes of male infertility. The outcomes of surgery in these patients are variable and often dependent upon the diagnosis and surgical expertise. We aimed to review the reported outcomes in Indian patients and evaluate potential reasons why these outcomes may be different from those reported from other regions. A search was performed on Medline/Pubmed using relevant keywords to identify publications from India on surgical management of azoospermia. The same search was repeated on Google and on the website of the Indian Journal of Urology. Personal emails were sent to prominent urologists performing surgery for azoospermia in India to obtain their opinions and reprints of their published articles. These were then reviewed. Very few articles were identified that pertained to the original search. A large majority of patients are diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. The outcomes of surgery where a clear diagnosis can be made are generally good and often comparable with the published literature. Infections are probably an under-diagnosed etiology. More research and publications are required to determine the etiology of obstructive azoospermia in the Indian men. These would help appropriate patient counseling and treatment.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Surgery for male obstructive infertility is not always successful. A number of clinical and operative findings, not previously reported, may influence the outcome. We have studied 182 patients with azoospermia who underwent vasoepididymostomy. The pre-operative and operative findings which adversely affected the function of the anastomosis were identified. The presence of spermatozoa in the semen sample was taken to mean a successful anastomosis. Abnormal testicular histology was an adverse pre-operative finding. Adverse operative findings included non-canalisation of the epididymal tubules and hypoplasia of the epididymis; both factors were associated with a high failure rate (almost 100%). The anastomosis was a failure in 78% of the patients when no fluid was seen on sectioning the epididymis. In the absence of adverse findings the success rate of vasoepididymostomy was 59%. Pre-operative testicular biopsy, together with careful observation and recording of findings before and during surgery, are recommended to avoid needless exploration and anastomosis.
    British Journal of Urology 08/1989; 64(1):69-71. DOI:10.1111/j.1464-410X.1989.tb05525.x
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chromosomal and Y-chromosomal microdeletion analysis has been done in cases of idiopathic infertility with the objective of evaluating the frequency of chromosomal and molecular anomaly as the causal factor of infertility. Barring a few cases of Klinefelter syndrome (XXY or XY/XXY mosaics), no chromosomal anomaly was encountered. Y-microdeletion was analysed by PCR-screening of STSs from different regions of the AZF (AZFa, AZFb, AZFc) on the long arm of the Y, as well as by using DNA probes of the genes RBM, DAZ (Yq), DAZLA (an autosomal homologue of DAZ) and SRY (Yp; sex determining gene). Out of 177 cases examined, 9 (azoospermia - 8 and oligoasthenospermia - 1) showed partial deletion of AZF. The size of deletion varied among patients but AZFc was either totally or partially removed in all of them. In contrast, no deletion was detected in AZFa. Testis biopsy done on a limited number of cases (50) showed diverse stages of spermatogenic arrest with no specific correlation with the genotype. The frequency of Y-chromosome microdeletion in our samples (approximately 5%) is much lower than the frequency (approximately 10%) reported globally and the two previous reports from India. We contend that the frequency may be affected by population structures in different geographical regions.
    Journal of Biosciences 10/2003; 28(5):605-12. DOI:10.1007/BF02703336 · 1.94 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The spermatogenesis locus azoospermia factor (AZF) in Yq11 has been delineated into three microdeletion intervals designated as AZFa, AZFb andAZFc. AZFc is the most frequently deleted region. We have studied 270 male infertile patients for various genetic disorders associated with infertile phenotype. In this study, we have presented results of our studies on Y-chromosome deletions, chromosomal abnormalities (Klinefelter syndrome) and histology of testis with the objective of seeing whether there were cases of gonosomic mosaicism and a causal correlation between the genetic disorder; and testicular aetiology could be drawn. In all the 13 cases of Y-chromosome microdeletion, AZFc region and DAZ gene were deleted, while no case of AZFa deletion was detected. This result was at variance with other reports from India, where a considerable fraction of cases showed deletion in AZFa region of the Y-chromosome. Both Y-deleted and non-Y-deleted cases revealed heterogeneous testicular phenotype with comparable severity. This disparity among testicular phenotype in cases with known genetic aetiology and even in cases of unknown aetiology can be attributed to different genetic backgrounds and effect of modifiers. Since male infertility is a multifactorial disorder, the contributions of environmental and occupational insults may not be underestimated.
    Indian journal of experimental biology 12/2005; 43(11):1088-92. · 0.75 Impact Factor