Surgery for azoospermia in the Indian patient: Why is it different?
ABSTRACT Obstructive azoospermia is one of the few surgically correctable causes of male infertility. The outcomes of surgery in these patients are variable and often dependent upon the diagnosis and surgical expertise. We aimed to review the reported outcomes in Indian patients and evaluate potential reasons why these outcomes may be different from those reported from other regions. A search was performed on Medline/Pubmed using relevant keywords to identify publications from India on surgical management of azoospermia. The same search was repeated on Google and on the website of the Indian Journal of Urology. Personal emails were sent to prominent urologists performing surgery for azoospermia in India to obtain their opinions and reprints of their published articles. These were then reviewed. Very few articles were identified that pertained to the original search. A large majority of patients are diagnosed with idiopathic infertility. The outcomes of surgery where a clear diagnosis can be made are generally good and often comparable with the published literature. Infections are probably an under-diagnosed etiology. More research and publications are required to determine the etiology of obstructive azoospermia in the Indian men. These would help appropriate patient counseling and treatment.