Diverse system stresses: common mechanisms of chromosome fragmentation. Cell Death Dis 2:e178-e186

The Center for Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.
Cell Death & Disease (Impact Factor: 5.01). 06/2011; 2(6):e178. DOI: 10.1038/cddis.2011.60
Source: PubMed


Chromosome fragmentation (C-Frag) is a newly identified MCD (mitotic cell death), distinct from apoptosis and MC (mitotic catastrophe). As different molecular mechanisms can induce C-Frag, we hypothesize that the general mechanism of its induction is a system response to cellular stress. A clear link between C-Frag and diverse system stresses generated from an array of molecular mechanisms is shown. Centrosome amplification, which is also linked to diverse mechanisms of stress, is shown to occur in association with C-Frag. This led to a new model showing that diverse stresses induce common, MCD. Specifically, different cellular stresses target the integral chromosomal machinery, leading to system instability and triggering of MCD by C-Frag. This model of stress-induced cell death is also applicable to other types of cell death. The current study solves the previously confusing relationship between the diverse molecular mechanisms of chromosome pulverization, suggesting that incomplete C-Frag could serve as the initial event responsible for forms of genome chaos including chromothripsis. In addition, multiple cell death types are shown to coexist with C-Frag and it is more dominant than apoptosis at lower drug concentrations. Together, this study suggests that cell death is a diverse group of highly heterogeneous events that are linked to stress-induced system instability and evolutionary potential.

Download full-text


Available from: Henry Heng, Oct 04, 2015
1 Follower
31 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The recently introduced genome theory of cancer evolution provides a new framework for evolutionary studies on cancer. In particular, the established relationship between the large number of individual molecular mechanisms and the general evolutionary mechanism of cancer calls upon a change in our strategies that have been based on the characterization of common cancer gene mutations and their defined pathways. To further explain the significance of the genome theory of cancer evolution, a brief review will be presented describing the various attempts to illustrate the evolutionary mechanism of cancer, followed by further analysis of some key components of somatic cell evolution, including the diversity of biological systems, the multiple levels of information systems and control systems, the two phases (the punctuated or discontinuous phase and gradual Darwinian stepwise phase) and dynamic patterns of somatic cell evolution where genome replacement is the driving force. By linking various individual molecular mechanisms to the level of genome population diversity and tumorigenicity, the general mechanism of cancer has been identified as the evolutionary mechanism of cancer, which can be summarized by the following three steps including stress-induced genome instability, population diversity or heterogeneity, and genome-mediated macroevolution. Interestingly, the evolutionary mechanism is equal to the collective aggregate of all individual molecular mechanisms. This relationship explains why most of the known molecular mechanisms can contribute to cancer yet there is no single dominant mechanism for the majority of clinical cases. Despite the fact that each molecular mechanism can serve as a system stress and initiate the evolutionary process, to achieve cancer, multiple cycles of genome-mediated macroevolution are required and are a stochastically determined event. Finally, the potential clinical implications of the evolutionary mechanism of cancer are briefly reviewed.
    Advances in Cancer Research 01/2011; 112:217-53. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-387688-1.00008-9 · 5.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: While our understanding of gene-based biology has greatly improved, it is clear that the function of the genome and most diseases cannot be fully explained by genes and other regulatory elements. Genes and the genome represent distinct levels of genetic organization with their own coding systems; Genes code parts like protein and RNA, but the genome codes the structure of genetic networks, which are defined by the whole set of genes, chromosomes and their topological interactions within a cell. Accordingly, the genetic code of DNA offers limited understanding of genome functions. In this perspective, we introduce the genome theory which calls for the departure of gene-centric genomic research. To make this transition for the next phase of genomic research, it is essential to acknowledge the importance of new genome-based biological concepts and to establish new technology platforms to decode the genome beyond sequencing.
    Genomics 05/2011; 98(4):242-52. DOI:10.1016/j.ygeno.2011.05.008 · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Cell Death & Disease 02/2012; 3(2):e263. DOI:10.1038/cddis.2012.2 · 5.01 Impact Factor
Show more