Gender differences in head impacts sustained by collegiate ice hockey players.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to quantify the frequency, magnitude, and location of head impacts sustained by male and female collegiate ice hockey players during two seasons of play.
During two seasons, 88 collegiate athletes (51 females, 37 males) on two female and male National Collegiate Athletic Association varsity ice hockey teams wore instrumented helmets. Each helmet was equipped with six single-axis accelerometers and a miniature data acquisition system to capture and record head impacts sustained during play. Data collected from the helmets were postprocessed to compute linear and rotational accelerations of the head as well as impact location. The head impact exposure data (frequency, location, and magnitude) were then compared between genders.
Female hockey players experienced a significantly lower (P < 0.001) number of impacts per athlete exposure than males (females = 1.7 ± 0.7, males = 2.9 ± 1.2). The frequency of impacts by location was the same between genders (P > 0.278) for all locations except the right side of the head, where males received fewer impacts than females (P = 0.031). Female hockey players were 1.1 times more likely than males to sustain an impact less than 50 g, whereas males were 1.3 times more likely to sustain an impact greater than 100 g. Similarly, males were 1.9 times more likely to sustain an impact with peak rotational acceleration greater than 5000 rad·s(-2) and 3.5 times more likely to sustain an impact greater than 10,000 rad·s(-2).
Although the incidence of concussion has typically been higher for female hockey players than male hockey players, female players sustain fewer impacts and impacts resulting in lower head acceleration than males. Further study is required to better understand the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors that lead to higher rates of concussion for females that have been previously reported.
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ABSTRACT: Finite element models of the human head play an important role in investigating the mechanisms of traumatic brain injury, including sports concussion. A critical limitation, however, is that they incur a substantial computational cost to simulate even a single impact. Therefore, current simulation schemes significantly hamper brain injury studies based on model-estimated tissue-level responses. In this study, we present a pre-computed brain response atlas (pcBRA) to substantially increase the simulation efficiency in estimating brain strains using isolated rotational acceleration impulses parameterized with four independent variables (peak magnitude and duration, and rotational axis azimuth and elevation angles) with values determined from on-field measurements. Using randomly generated testing datasets, the partially established pcBRA achieved a 100% success rate in interpolation based on element-wise differences in accumulated peak strain (e p) according to a ''double-10%'' criterion or average regional e p in generic regions and the corpus callosum. A similar performance was maintained in extrapolation. The pcBRA performance was further success-fully validated against directly simulated responses from two independently measured typical real-world rotational profiles. The computational cost to estimate element-wise whole-brain or regional e p was 6 s and <0.01 s, respectively, vs. ~50 min directly simulating a 40 ms impulse. These findings suggest the pcBRA could substantially increase the throughput in impact simulation without significant loss of accuracy from the estimation itself and, thus, its potential to accelerate the exploration of the mechanisms of sports concussion in general. If successful, the pcBRA may also become a diagnostic adjunct in conjunction with sensors that measure head impact kinemat-ics on the field to objectively monitor and identify tissue-level brain trauma in real-time for ''return-to-play'' decision-making on the sideline.Annals of Biomedical Engineering 01/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10439-014-1193-3 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Context : Concussion injury rates in men's and women's ice hockey are reported to be among the highest of all collegiate sports. Quantification of the frequency of head impacts and the magnitude of head acceleration as a function of the different impact mechanisms (eg, head contact with the ice) that occur in ice hockey could provide a better understanding of this high injury rate. Objective : To quantify and compare the per-game frequency and magnitude of head impacts associated with various impact mechanisms in men's and women's collegiate ice hockey players. Design : Cohort study. Setting : Collegiate ice hockey rink. Patients or Other Participants : Twenty-three men and 31 women from 2 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I ice hockey teams. Main Outcome Measure(s) : We analyzed magnitude and frequency (per game) of head impacts per player among impact mechanisms and between sexes using generalized mixed linear models and generalized estimating equations to account for repeated measures within players. Intervention(s) : Participants wore helmets instrumented with accelerometers to allow us to collect biomechanical measures of head impacts sustained during play. Video footage from 53 games was synchronized with the biomechanical data. Head impacts were classified into 8 categories: contact with another player; the ice, boards or glass, stick, puck, or goal; indirect contact; and contact from celebrating. Results : For men and women, contact with another player was the most frequent impact mechanism, and contact with the ice generated the greatest-magnitude head accelerations. The men had higher per-game frequencies of head impacts from contact with another player and contact with the boards than did the women (P < .001), and these impacts were greater in peak rotational acceleration (P = .027). Conclusions : Identifying the impact mechanisms in collegiate ice hockey that result in frequent and high-magnitude head impacts will provide us with data that may improve our understanding of the high rate of concussion in the sport and inform injury-prevention strategies.Journal of athletic training 08/2014; 49(4). DOI:10.4085/1062-6050-49.3.19 · 1.51 Impact Factor
PEDIATRICS 01/2014; 133:1151-1157. DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-0692 · 5.30 Impact Factor