Gender differences in head impacts sustained by collegiate ice hockey players.
ABSTRACT This study aimed to quantify the frequency, magnitude, and location of head impacts sustained by male and female collegiate ice hockey players during two seasons of play.
During two seasons, 88 collegiate athletes (51 females, 37 males) on two female and male National Collegiate Athletic Association varsity ice hockey teams wore instrumented helmets. Each helmet was equipped with six single-axis accelerometers and a miniature data acquisition system to capture and record head impacts sustained during play. Data collected from the helmets were postprocessed to compute linear and rotational accelerations of the head as well as impact location. The head impact exposure data (frequency, location, and magnitude) were then compared between genders.
Female hockey players experienced a significantly lower (P < 0.001) number of impacts per athlete exposure than males (females = 1.7 ± 0.7, males = 2.9 ± 1.2). The frequency of impacts by location was the same between genders (P > 0.278) for all locations except the right side of the head, where males received fewer impacts than females (P = 0.031). Female hockey players were 1.1 times more likely than males to sustain an impact less than 50 g, whereas males were 1.3 times more likely to sustain an impact greater than 100 g. Similarly, males were 1.9 times more likely to sustain an impact with peak rotational acceleration greater than 5000 rad·s(-2) and 3.5 times more likely to sustain an impact greater than 10,000 rad·s(-2).
Although the incidence of concussion has typically been higher for female hockey players than male hockey players, female players sustain fewer impacts and impacts resulting in lower head acceleration than males. Further study is required to better understand the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors that lead to higher rates of concussion for females that have been previously reported.
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ABSTRACT: Hockey is played by youth across Canada, and its popularity has increased dramatically among females in the past decade. Despite this, there has been little epidemiological research comparing the injury patterns of young female and male hockey players.
- PEDIATRICS 01/2014; 133:1151-1157. DOI:10.1542/peds.2014-0692 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective The purpose of this study was to summarize sport concussion incidence data, identify sports that present higher injury frequency, reveal the degree of risk in some lesser-known sports, and outline specific details within the sports literature that raise additional concerns, such as helmet-to-helmet contact and player positions that experience frequent impact. Methods A systematic literature review of Pub Med using keyword search on injury, concussion, and sports was performed through May 2012. Abstracts were identified, selections were made based upon inclusion criteria, and full-length articles were obtained. Additional articles were considered following review of reference sections. Articles were reviewed and tabulated according to sport. Results Two hundred eighty-nine articles were screened, and 62 articles were reviewed. The overall incidence of concussion in sport ranged from 0.1 to 21.5 per 1000 athletic exposures. The lowest incidence was reported in swimming and diving. Concussion incidence was highest in Canadian junior ice hockey, but elevated incidence in American football remains a concern because of the large number of participants. Conclusions The literature reviewed included incidence of concussion on the field of play under real-world conditions and influenced by the current culture of sport. The studies examined in this article show that there is risk of concussion in nearly every sport. Some sports have higher concussion frequency than others, which may depend upon the forces and roles of the positions played in these sports. Younger athletes have a higher incidence of concussion, and female incidence is greater than male in many comparable sports. Headgear may reduce concussion in some sports but may also give athletes a false sense of protection.Journal of chiropractic medicine 12/2013; 12(4):230–251. DOI:10.1016/j.jcm.2012.11.005