The c-Abl-MST1 Signaling Pathway Mediates Oxidative Stress-Induced Neuronal Cell Death
ABSTRACT Oxidative stress influences cell survival and homeostasis, but the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of oxidative stress remain to be elucidated. The protein kinase MST1 (mammalian Ste20-like kinase 1) plays a major role in oxidative stress-induced cell death in primary mammalian neurons. However, the mechanisms that regulate MST1 in oxidative stress responses remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that the protein kinase c-Abl phosphorylates MST1 at Y433, which triggers the stabilization and activation of MST1. Inhibition of c-Abl promotes the degradation of MST1 through C terminus of Hsc70-interacting protein (CHIP)-mediated ubiquitination, and thereby attenuates cell death. Oxidative stress induces the c-Abl-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of MST1 and increases the interaction between MST1 and FOXO3 (Forkhead box O3), thereby activating the MST1-FOXO signaling pathway, leading to cell death in both primary culture neurons and rat hippocampal neurons. The identification of the c-Abl tyrosine kinase as a novel upstream activator of MST1 suggests that the c-Abl-MST1 signaling cascade plays an important role in cellular responses to oxidative stress.
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ABSTRACT: Initially identified as mammalian homologs to yeast Ste20 kinases, the mammalian sterile twenty-like (Mst)1/2 kinases have been widely investigated subsequent to their rediscovery as key components of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway in flies. To date, our understanding of Mst substrates and downstream signaling outstrips our knowledge of how these enzymes are controlled by upstream signals. While much remains to be discovered regarding the mechanisms of Mst regulation, it is clear that Mst1 kinase activity is governed at least in part by its state of dimerization, including self-association and also heterodimerization with various other signaling partners. Here we review the basic architecture of Mst signaling and function and discuss recent advances in our understanding of how these important kinases are regulated.Trends in Biochemical Sciences 02/2015; 40(3). DOI:10.1016/j.tibs.2015.01.001 · 13.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The transcriptional regulators YAP and TAZ are the focus of intense interest given their remarkable biological properties in development, tissue homeostasis and cancer. YAP and TAZ activity is key for the growth of whole organs, for amplification of tissue-specific progenitor cells during tissue renewal and regeneration, and for cell proliferation. In tumors, YAP/TAZ can reprogram cancer cells into cancer stem cells and incite tumor initiation, progression and metastasis. As such, YAP/TAZ are appealing therapeutic targets in cancer and regenerative medicine. Just like the function of YAP/TAZ offers a molecular entry point into the mysteries of tissue biology, their regulation by upstream cues is equally captivating. YAP/TAZ are well known for being the effectors of the Hippo signaling cascade, and mouse mutants in Hippo pathway components display remarkable phenotypes of organ overgrowth, enhanced stem cell content and reduced cellular differentiation. YAP/TAZ are primary sensors of the cell's physical nature, as defined by cell structure, shape and polarity. YAP/TAZ activation also reflects the cell "social" behavior, including cell adhesion and the mechanical signals that the cell receives from tissue architecture and surrounding extracellular matrix (ECM). At the same time, YAP/TAZ entertain relationships with morphogenetic signals, such as Wnt growth factors, and are also regulated by Rho, GPCRs and mevalonate metabolism. YAP/TAZ thus appear at the centerpiece of a signaling nexus by which cells take control of their behavior according to their own shape, spatial location and growth factor context.Physiological Reviews 10/2014; 94(4):1287-1312. DOI:10.1152/physrev.00005.2014 · 29.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: All neurodegenerative diseases are associated with oxidative stress-induced neuronal death. Forkhead box O3a (FOXO3a) is a key transcription factor involved in neuronal apoptosis. However, how FOXO3a forms complexes and functions in oxidative stress processing remains largely unknown. In the present study, we show that histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) forms a physical complex with FOXO3a, which plays an important role in FOXO3a-dependent gene transcription and oxidative stress-induced mouse cerebellar granule neuron (CGN) apoptosis. Interestingly, we also found that HDAC2 became selectively enriched in the promoter region of the p21 gene, but not those of other target genes, and inhibited FOXO3a-mediated p21 transcription. Furthermore, we found that oxidative stress reduced the interaction between FOXO3a and HDAC2, leading to an increased histone H4K16 acetylation level in the p21 promoter region and upregulated p21 expression in a manner independent of p53 or E2F1. Phosphorylation of HDAC2 at Ser 394 is important for the HDAC2-FOXO3a interaction, and we found that cerebral ischemia/reperfusion reduced phosphorylation of HDAC2 at Ser 394 and mitigated the HDAC2-FOXO3a interaction in mouse brain tissue. Our study reveals the novel regulation of FOXO3a-mediated selective gene transcription via epigenetic modification in the process of oxidative stress-induced cell death, which could be exploited therapeutically. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/351250-10$15.00/0.