Reduced-intensity conditioning therapy with busulfan, fludarabine, and antithymocyte globulin for HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation in acute leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome
ABSTRACT Any role for reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical donor remains to be defined. We therefore assessed 83 patients (age, 16-70 years): 68 with acute leukemia (including 34 in remission and 34 with refractory disease) and 15 patients with myelodysplastic syndrome, in HCT trials using RIC with busulfan, fludarabine, and antithymocyte globulin. The HLA-haploidentical donors, offspring (n = 38), mothers (n = 24), or siblings (n = 21) of patients, underwent leukapheresis after receiving granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and donated cells were transplanted without further manipulation. Cyclosporine and methotrexate were given for GVHD prophylaxis. The cumulative incidences of neutrophil engraftment, grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, and transplantation-related mortality after HCT, were 92%, 20%, 34%, and 18%, respectively. After a median follow-up time of 26.6 months (range, 16.8-78.8 months), the event-free and overall survival rates were 56% and 45%, respectively, for patients with acute leukemia in remission; 9% and 9%, respectively, for patients with refractory acute leukemia; and 53% and 53%, respectively, for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. HCT from an HLA-haploidentical family member resulted in favorable outcomes when RIC containing antithymocyte globulin was performed. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00521430 and #NCT00732316.
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- "Four patients developed CMV disease, and 3 of them died of CMV-colitis per se or of other causes. Despite the use of ATG, CD8+ lymphocyte counts exceeded pretransplantation levels at 2 months, whereas CD4+ lymphocyte counts recovered more slowly, with only approximately half of all patients showing CD4+ lymphocyte counts > 200/μL at 2 to 6 months after transplantation . "
ABSTRACT: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and delayed immune reconstitution (IR) remain serious obstacles for successful haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT). CMV-specific IR varied according to whether patients received manipulated/unmanipulated grafts or myeloablative/reduced intensity conditioning. CMV infection commonly occurs following impaired IR of T cell and its subsets. Here, we discuss the factors that influence IR based on currently available evidence. Adoptive transfer of donor T cells to improve CMV-specific IR is discussed. One should choose grafts from CMV-positive donors for transplant into CMV-positive recipients (D+/R+) because this will result in better IR than would grafts from CMV-negative donors (D-/R+). Stem cell source and donor age are other important factors. Posttransplant complications, including graft-versus-host disease and CMV infection, as well as their associated treatments, should also be considered. The effects of varying degrees of HLA disparity and conditioning regimens are more controversial. As many of these factors and strategies are considered in the setting of haplo-SCT, it is anticipated that haplo-SCT will continue to advance, further expanding our understanding of IR and CMV infection.Research Journal of Immunology 04/2014; 2014:631951. DOI:10.1155/2014/631951
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ABSTRACT: Only 30% of patients who require an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant will have an HLA-matched sibling donor. A search for an unrelated donor will be undertaken for patients without a matched family donor. However, many patients, particularly patients of diverse racial and ethnic backgrounds, may not be able to rapidly identify a suitably matched unrelated donor. Three alternative graft sources, umbilical cord blood (UCB), haploidentical (haplo)-related donor, and mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) are available. UCB is associated with decreased GVHD, but hematologic recovery and immune reconstitution are slow. Haplo-HCT is characterized by donor availability for transplantation and after transplantation adoptive cellular immunotherapy but may be complicated by a high risk of graft failure and relapse. A MMUD transplant may also be an option, but GVHD may be of greater concern. Phase 2 studies have documented advances in HLA typing, GVHD prophylaxis, and infection prevention, which have improved survival. The same patient evaluated in different transplant centers may be offered MMUD, UCB, or haplo-HCT depending on center preference. In this review, we discuss the rationale for donor choice and the need of phase 3 studies to help answer this important question.Blood 12/2011; 119(9):1972-80. DOI:10.1182/blood-2011-11-354563 · 10.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is an effective and sometimes the only curative therapy for patients with certain hematological diseases. Allo-HSCT has been practiced in China for approximately 30 years, and great improvements have been made within the past decade, particularly in fields such as the haploidentical HSCT system, strategies to overcome relapse and GVHD, and modified HSCT for elderly patients. This review will describe the current situation and provide a prospective of these unique aspects of Allo-HSCT in China.Journal of Hematology & Oncology 03/2012; 5(1):10. DOI:10.1186/1756-8722-5-10 · 4.81 Impact Factor