Computational Intelligence in Early Diabetes Diagnosis: A Review

Department of Biotechnology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi, India.
The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2010; 7(4):252-62. DOI: 10.1900/RDS.2010.7.252
Source: PubMed


The development of an effective diabetes diagnosis system by taking advantage of computational intelligence is regarded as a primary goal nowadays. Many approaches based on artificial network and machine learning algorithms have been developed and tested against diabetes datasets, which were mostly related to individuals of Pima Indian origin. Yet, despite high accuracies of up to 99% in predicting the correct diabetes diagnosis, none of these approaches have reached clinical application so far. One reason for this failure may be that diabetologists or clinical investigators are sparsely informed about, or trained in the use of, computational diagnosis tools. Therefore, this article aims at sketching out an outline of the wide range of options, recent developments, and potentials in machine learning algorithms as diabetes diagnosis tools. One focus is on supervised and unsupervised methods, which have made significant impacts in the detection and diagnosis of diabetes at primary and advanced stages. Particular attention is paid to algorithms that show promise in improving diabetes diagnosis. A key advance has been the development of a more in-depth understanding and theoretical analysis of critical issues related to algorithmic construction and learning theory. These include trade-offs for maximizing generalization performance, use of physically realistic constraints, and incorporation of prior knowledge and uncertainty. The review presents and explains the most accurate algorithms, and discusses advantages and pitfalls of methodologies. This should provide a good resource for researchers from all backgrounds interested in computational intelligence-based diabetes diagnosis methods, and allows them to extend their knowledge into this kind of research.

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    • "The early contributions can be found on the neural networks, it provides a new significant way for intelligent medical diagnosis. Based on this idea, artificial neural networks have been applied in the diagnosis of: (i) pancreatic disease [1], (ii) gynecological diseases [2], (iii) early diabetes [3], (iv) colorectal cancer [4], and (v) multiple sclerosis lesions [5]. While this kind of method to set up the achievements of medical diagnostic system is still limited, the main reasons are that the learning algorithm cannot calculate the right results when the required algorithm to set up neural network model solves the larger, multi-features disease diagnosis problems. "
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    ABSTRACT: The concept of classification of clinical data can be utilized in the development of an effective diagnosis system by taking the advantage of computational intelligence. Diabetes disease diagnosis via proper interpretation of the diabetes data is an important problem in neural networks. Unfortunately, although several classification studies have been carried out with significant performance, many of the current methods often fail to reach out to patients. Graphical user interface-enabled tools need to be developed through which medical practitioners can simply enter the health profiles of their patients and receive an instant diabetes prediction with an acceptable degree of confidence. In this study, the neural network approach was used for a dataset of 768 persons from a Pima Indian population living near Phoenix, AZ. A neural network mixture of experts model was trained with these data using the expectation-minimization algorithm. The mixture of experts method was used to train the algorithm with 97% accuracy. A graphical user interface was developed that would work in conjunction with the trained network to provide the output in a presentable format. This study provides a machine-implementable approach that can be used by physicians and patients to minimize the extent of error in diagnosis. The authors are hopeful that replication of results of this study in other populations may lead to improved diagnosis. Physicians can simply enter the health profile of patients and get the diagnosis for diabetes type 2.
    Diabetes Technology &amp Therapeutics 11/2011; 14(3):251-6. DOI:10.1089/dia.2011.0202 · 2.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The incidence of diabetes is increasing rapidly across the globe. India has the highest proportion of diabetic patients, earning it the doubtful distinction of the 'diabetes capital of the world'. Early detection of diabetes could help to prevent or postpone its onset by taking appropriate preventive measures, including the initiation of lifestyle changes. To date, early identification of prediabetes or type 2 diabetes has proven problematic, such that there is an urgent requirement for tools enabling easy, quick, and accurate diagnosis. AIM: To develop an easy, quick, and precise tool for diagnosing early diabetes based on machine learning algorithms. METHODS: The dataset used in this study was based on the health profiles of diabetic and non-diabetic patients from hospitals in India. A novel machine learning algorithm, termed "mixture of expert", was used for the determination of a patient's diabetic state. Out of a total of 1415 subjects, 1104 were used to train the mixture of expert system. The remaining 311 data sets were reserved for validation of the algorithm. Mixture of expert was implemented in matlab to train the data for the development of the model. The model with the minimum mean square error was selected and used for the validation of the results. RESULTS: Different combinations and numbers of hidden nodes and expectation maximization (EM) iterations were used to optimize the accuracy of the algorithm. The overall best accuracy of 99.36% was achieved with an iteration of 150 and 20 hidden nodes. Sensitivity, specificity, and total classification accuracy were calculated as 99.5%, 99.07%, and 99.36%, respectively. Furthermore, a graphical user interface was developed in java script such that the user can readily enter the variables and easily use the algorithm as a tool. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a highly precise machine learning prediction tool for identifying prediabetic, diabetic, and non-diabetic individuals with high accuracy. The tool could be used for large scale screening in hopsitals or diabetes prevention programs.
    The Review of Diabetic Studies 05/2012; 1(1-9):55-62. DOI:10.1900/RDS.2012.9.55
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