Human Herpesvirus 8 Seropositivity Among Sexually Active Adults in Uganda

University of Nebraska - Lincoln, United States of America
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 06/2011; 6(6):e21286. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021286
Source: PubMed


Sexual transmission of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) has been implicated among homosexual men, but the evidence for sexual transmission among heterosexual individuals is controversial. We investigated the role of sexual transmission of HHV8 in a nationally representative sample in Uganda, where HHV8 infection is endemic and transmitted mostly during childhood.
The study population was a subset of participants (n = 2681) from a population-based HIV/AIDS serobehavioral survey of adults aged 15-59 years conducted in 2004/2005. High risk for sexual transmission was assessed by questionnaire and serological testing for HIV and herpes simplex virus 2. Anti-HHV8 antibodies were measured using two enzyme immunoassays targeting synthetic peptides from the K8.1 and orf65 viral genes. The current study was restricted to 2288 sexually active adults. ORs and 95% CIs for HHV8 seropositivity were estimated by fitting logistic regression models with a random intercept using MPLUS and SAS software.
The weighted prevalence of HHV8 seropositivity was 56.2%, based on 1302 seropositive individuals, and it increased significantly with age (P(trend)<0.0001). In analyses adjusting for age, sex, geography, education, and HIV status, HHV8 seropositivity was positively associated with reporting two versus one marital union (OR:1.52, 95% CI: 1.17-1.97) and each unit increase in the number of children born (OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00-1.08), and was inversely associated with ever having used a condom (OR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.45-0.89). HHV8 seropositivity was not associated with HIV (P = 0.660) or with herpes simplex virus 2 (P = 0.732) seropositivity. Other sexual variables, including lifetime number of sexual partners or having had at least one sexually transmitted disease, and socioeconomic variables were unrelated to HHV8 seropositivity.
Our findings are compatible with the conclusion that sexual transmission of HHV8 in Uganda, if it occurs, is weak.


Available from: Sam Mbulaiteye
  • Source
    • "However, the possibility of sexual transmission among heterosexual individuals remained controversial. Some reports suggested that heterosexual transmission may contribute to the acquisition of KSHV infections, whereas other reports found that the sexual mode did not play a significant role in KSHV transmission[19-24]. Data from different regions have not been consistent and needs to be further investigated. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Limited information on epidemiologic patterns of KSHV, with none focusing on heterosexual transmission, is available in mainland China. To clarify this, a cross-sectional study was conducted among a group of female sex workers (FSW) and general population women (GW) in Shanghai, China. An anonymous questionnaire interview was administrated among 600 FSW and 600 GW. Blood samples were collected and tested for antibodies to KSHV, HSV-2, HIV, syphilis and HBsAg. Correlates of KSHV and HSV-2 were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. None of the study participants were tested positive for HIV. The seroprevalence of KSHV, HSV-2 , HBV and syphilis was 10.0%, 52.2%, 12.3% and 10.5%, respectively for FSW, and was 11.0%, 15.3%, 9.8% and 2.8%, respectively for GW. KSHV seropositivity was not associated with syphilis and HSV-2 infection as well as sexual practices among either FSW or GW. Nevertheless, HSV-2 infection among FSW was independently associated with being ever married (OR = 1.59; 95% CI: 1.04-2.45), >5 years of prostitution (OR = 2.06; 95%CI: 1.16-3.68) and being syphilis positive (OR = 2.65; 95%CI: 1.43-4.93). HSV-2 infection among GW was independently associated with an age of >35 years (OR = 2.29; 95%CI: 1.07-4.93), having had more than 2 sex partners in the prior 12 months (OR = 6.44; 95%CI: 1.67-24.93) and being syphilis positive (OR = 3.94; 95%CI: 1.38-11.23). A gradual increase of prevalence with the prostitution time group was also detected for HSV-2 and syphilis, but not for KSHV. KSHV is moderately and equivalently prevalent among FSW and GW. Heterosexual contact is not a predominant route for KSHV transmission among Chinese women.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 02/2014; 14(1):58. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-14-58 · 2.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Detailed analyses of KSHV seropositivity patterns have been assessed and described in previous studies [8,9]. To observe the complete pattern of KSHV seropositivity in Uganda, this study included all questions were asked in the UHSBS including questions with knowledge and attitudes on HIV/AIDS and additional household questions, which was not elicited described in previous studies [8,9,34,35]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seropositivity is associated with sexual, environmental, and socioeconomic exposures. Whether these characteristics are independent risk factors is uncertain because of reliance on selected high-risk or hospital-based populations and incomplete adjustment for confounding. Therefore, we evaluated risk factors for KSHV seropositivity in a population-based study in Uganda using principal components analysis (PCA). Methods The study population comprised 2,681 individuals randomly selected from a nationally-representative population-based HIV/AIDS sero-behavioral survey conducted in 2004/05. Questionnaire and laboratory data (97 variables) were transformed into a smaller set of uncorrelated variables using PCA. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between components and KSHV seropositivity. Results Data were reduced to three principal components (PCs) labeled as Sexual behavioral, Socioeconomic, and Knowledge PCs. In crude analysis, KSHV seropositivity was associated with the Knowledge (ptrend = 0.012) and Socioeconomic components (ptrend = 0.0001), but not with the Sexual-behavioral component (ptrend = 0.066). KSHV seropositivity was associated with the Socioeconomic PC (ptrend = 0.037), but not with the Sexual-behavioral and Knowledge PCs, in the models including PCs, age, gender and geographic region. Conclusions Our results fit with the view that in Uganda socioeconomic characteristic may influence KSHV seropositivity. Conversely, the results fit with the interpretation that in Uganda sexual-behavioral characteristics, if relevant, contribute minimally.
    Infectious Agents and Cancer 01/2013; 8(1):3. DOI:10.1186/1750-9378-8-3 · 2.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The discovery of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) led to recognition of KSHV-associated multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) as a distinct lymphoproliferative disorder. The pathogenesis of KSHV-MCD is attributed to proliferation of KSHV-infected B cells, production of KSHV-encoded viral interleukin 6 by these cells, and dysregulation of human interleukin 6 and interleukin 10. This article reviews advances in the field of disease pathogenesis and targeted therapies. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of KSHV-MCD has increased in recent years and improved therapies have been developed. Recent studies demonstrate that the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody, rituximab, as well as virus-activated cytotoxic therapy using high-dose zidovudine and valganciclovir, can control symptoms and decrease adenopathy. With treatment, 1-year survival now exceeds 85%. Interestingly, even in the absence of pathologic findings of MCD, KSHV-infected patients may have inflammatory symptoms, excess cytokine production, and elevated KSHV viral load similar to KSHV-associated MCD. The term KSHV-associated inflammatory cytokine syndrome has been proposed to describe such patients. Recent advances in targeted therapy have improved outcomes in KSHV-MCD, and decreased need for cytotoxic chemotherapy. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis of KSHV-MCD and KSHV-associated inflammatory cytokine syndrome is needed, and will likely lead to additional advances in therapy for these disorders.
    Current opinion in oncology 06/2012; 24(5):495-505. DOI:10.1097/CCO.0b013e328355e0f3 · 4.47 Impact Factor
Show more