To evaluate whether ultrasonography (US) alone is sufficient in imaging the urinary tract in 1185 children with urinary tract infection (UTI).
The reports on US and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) were reviewed.
Initial US was normal in 861/1185 patients (73%). VCUG revealed abnormal findings in 285/861 (33%), of which grade III-V vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) comprised 97 cases (11%). During follow-up, VUR had resolved in 88/97 (91%) patients: in 50/57 (88%) patients without active treatment for VUR, in 27/29 (93%) with endoscopic and in 11/11 (100%) with open surgery for VUR. During follow-up, 11/97 patients (11%) had developed new renal scarring detectable in US, but no renal impairment occurred. Except for VUR, VCUG showed nonobstructive urethral valves in two infant boys with normal initial US. Thus, in 861 children with normal initial US, 40 patients with grade III-V VUR and two patients with significant nonreflux pathology may have benefited from surgical treatment, giving the total number of possibly missed pathological finding in 42/861 (4.9%) cases if VCUG had not been performed.
We suggest that children with UTI could be examined using US alone and to use VCUG only after additional indications.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To evaluate the long-term outcome of children with urinary tract infection (UTI). DESIGN Follow-up examination 6 to 17 years after childhood UTI. SETTING Secondary to tertiary referral center. PATIENTS From an original population-based cohort of 1185 children with a history of UTI on whom both ultrasonography (US) and voiding cystourethrography had been performed between January 1, 1993, and December 31, 2003, we excluded 24 cases with major renal dysplasia or obstruction of the urinary tract to form a study cohort of 1161 patients. We took a stratified random sample of 228 patients for follow-up, and a total of 193 (85%) participated. Of the 193 participating patients, 103 (53%) had received antibiotic prophylaxis and 42 (22%) had undergone surgery. MAIN EXPOSURE Urinary tract infection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Renal growth and parenchymal damage in US examination, kidney function, and blood pressure. RESULTS Unilateral renal parenchymal defect was found in 22 of the 150 patients (15%) studied with US at follow-up, and unilateral kidney growth retardation was found in 5 patients (3%). All but 1 of the renal parenchymal defects seen on US were in patients with grade III to V vesicoureteral reflux. Despite the parenchymal defects seen on US, the serum cystatin C concentration, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and blood pressure were within the normal ranges in all patients. CONCLUSIONS The risk of long-term consequences from childhood UTI seems to be very low. Owing to the observational nature of our study, we cannot exclude the effects of the given treatment on the outcome of our patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine if voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) following first episode of urinary tract infection (UTI) offers any incremental diagnostic advantage in boys if a comprehensive renal and bladder ultrasonogram (RBUS) revealed no abnormalities.
All boys less than 10 years of age whose first evaluation for UTI included RBUS and VCUG were retrospectively studied over a 10-year period. Those with a disorder of the urinary tract known before imaging were excluded. RBUS and VCUG results were analyzed.
Of the 77 who met the inclusion criteria, 58 (77%) were <1 year old. 45 (58%) boys had normal RBUS and VCUG. In 16 (21%) both studies were abnormal: 15 had vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and one had posterior urethral valves. The remaining 16 (21%) had one abnormal study: 10 had pelvicaliectasis on RBUS without VUR; 6 had normal RBUS with VUR. No urethral abnormality was diagnosed on VCUG when RBUS was normal. Of the six who had VUR and normal RBUS, the one who required surgical intervention had recurrent febrile UTI.
If a well-performed RBUS is normal in a boy with first UTI, the likelihood of a significant finding in VCUG is low. A VCUG is likewise of no apparent screening benefit for obstructive uropathy. With the uncertainties surrounding the benefit of chemoprophylaxis, omitting a VCUG when a RBUS is normal in boys with a first UTI avoids the morbidity without missing important pathologies or altering evolving management protocols.
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