Using evidence, rigorous measurement, and collaboration to eliminate central line-associated bloodstream infections

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Critical care medicine (Impact Factor: 6.31). 08/2010; 38(8 Suppl):S292-8. DOI: 10.1097/CCM.0b013e3181e6a165
Source: PubMed


Healthcare-associated infections are common, costly, and often lethal. Although there is growing pressure to reduce these infections, one project thus far has unprecedented collaboration among many groups at every level of health care. After this project produced a 66% reduction in central catheter-associated bloodstream infections and a median central catheter-associated bloodstream infection rate of zero across >100 intensive care units in Michigan, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality awarded a grant to spread this project to ten additional states. A program, called On the CUSP: Stop BSI, was formulated from the Michigan project, and additional funding from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and private philanthropy has positioned the program for implementation state by state across the United States. Furthermore, the program is being implemented throughout Spain and England and is undergoing pilot testing in several hospitals in Peru. The model in this program balances the tension between being scientifically rigorous and feasible. The three main components of the model include translating evidence into practice at the bedside to prevent central catheter-associated bloodstream infections, improving culture and teamwork, and having a data collection system to monitor central catheter-associated bloodstream infections and other variables. If successful, this program will be the first national quality improvement program in the United States with quantifiable and measurable goals.

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Available from: Melinda Sawyer, Jul 11, 2014
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    • "Pnet a[1] has been used in this study to fit ERG models with different types of PCNs (i.e. low-cost versus high-cost and low-readmission versus high-readmission). "
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    ABSTRACT: Physician collaboration, which evolves among physicians during the course of providing healthcare services to hospitalised patients, has been seen crucial to effective patient outcomes in healthcare organisations and hospitals. This study aims to explore physician collaborations using measures of social network analysis (SNA) and exponential random graph (ERG) model. Based on the underlying assumption that collaborations evolve among physicians when they visit a common hospitalised patient, this study first proposes an approach to map collaboration network among physicians from the details of their visits to patients. This paper terms this network as physician collaboration network (PCN). Second, SNA measures of degree centralisation, betweenness centralisation and density are used to examine the impact of SNA measures on hospitalisation cost and readmission rate. As a control variable, the impact of patient age on the relation between network measures (i.e. degree centralisation, betweenness centralisation and density) and hospital outcome variables (i.e. hospitalisation cost and readmission rate) are also explored. Finally, ERG models are developed to identify micro-level structural properties of (i) high-cost versus low-cost PCN; and (ii) high-readmission rate versus low-readmission rate PCN. An electronic health insurance claim dataset of a very large Australian health insurance organisation is utilised to construct and explore PCN in this study. It is revealed that the density of PCN is positively correlated with hospitalisation cost and readmission rate. In contrast, betweenness centralisation is found negatively correlated with hospitalisation cost and readmission rate. Degree centralisation shows a negative correlation with readmission rate, but does not show any correlation with hospitalisation cost. Patient age does not have any impact for the relation of SNA measures with hospitalisation cost and hospital readmission rate. The 2-star parameter of ERG model has significant impact on hospitalisation cost. Furthermore, it is found that alternative-k-star and alternative-k-two-path parameters of ERG model have impact on readmission rate. Collaboration structures among physicians affect hospitalisation cost and hospital readmission rate. The implications of the findings of this study in terms of their potentiality in developing guidelines to improve the performance of collaborative environments among healthcare professionals within healthcare organisations are discussed in this paper.
    BMC Health Services Research 06/2013; 13(1):234. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-13-234 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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    • "Each team may participate in one or more of these activities in any given month. Further details on the intervention, and the suggested implementation framework (known as the '4 Es') have been published elsewhere [3,16-18]. We calculated a sum of CUSP activities and a sum of educational activities to reflect two aspects of the intensity of intervention activity. "
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: Team-based interventions are effective for improving safety and quality of healthcare. However, contextual factors, such as team functioning, leadership, and organizational support, can vary significantly across teams and affect the level of implementation success. Yet, the science for measuring context is immature. The goal of this study is to validate measures from a short instrument tailored to track dynamic context and progress for a team-based quality improvement (QI) intervention. Design: Secondary cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of data from a clustered randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a team-based quality improvement intervention to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) rates in intensive care units (ICUs).Setting: Forty-six ICUs located within 35 faith-based, not-for-profit community hospitals across 12 states in the U.S.Population: Team members participating in an ICU-based QI intervention.Measures: The primary measure is the Team Check-up Tool (TCT), an original instrument that assesses context and progress of a team-based QI intervention. The TCT is administered monthly. Validation measures include CLABSI rate, Team Functioning Survey (TFS) and Practice Environment Scale (PES) from the Nursing Work Index.Analysis: Temporal stability, responsiveness and validity of the TCT. We found evidence supporting the temporal stability, construct validity, and responsiveness of TCT measures of intervention activities, perceived group-level behaviors, and barriers to team progress. The TCT demonstrates good measurement reliability, validity, and responsiveness. By having more validated measures on implementation context, researchers can more readily conduct rigorous studies to identify contextual variables linked to key intervention and patient outcomes and strengthen the evidence base on successful spread of efficacious team-based interventions. QI teams participating in an intervention should also find data from a validated tool useful for identifying opportunities to improve their own implementation.
    Implementation Science 10/2011; 6(1):115. DOI:10.1186/1748-5908-6-115 · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    • "Between 2002 and 2010, these recommendations were found to be successful in many published studies, most of which were done in the ICU [20,59-62]. In Michigan, a comprehensive approach based on a bundle of care combined with an improvement in the safety culture and teamwork was associated with a dramatic decrease in CLABSIs, from 7.7 to 1.4 per 1,000 CVC-days, in 103 ICUs (1,981 ICU months; 375,757 catheter-days) [60], and this effect was sustained [63]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Catheters are the leading source of bloodstream infections for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Comprehensive unit-based programs have proven to be effective in decreasing catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSIs). ICU rates of CR-BSI higher than 2 per 1,000 catheter-days are no longer acceptable. The locally adapted list of preventive measures should include skin antisepsis with an alcoholic preparation, maximal barrier precautions, a strict catheter maintenance policy, and removal of unnecessary catheters. The development of new technologies capable of further decreasing the now low CR-BSI rate is a major challenge. Recently, new materials that decrease the risk of skin-to-vein bacterial migration, such as new antiseptic dressings, were extensively tested. Antimicrobial-coated catheters can prevent CR-BSI but have a theoretical risk of selecting resistant bacteria. An antimicrobial or antiseptic lock may prevent bacterial migration from the hub to the bloodstream. This review discusses the available knowledge about these new technologies.
    Annals of Intensive Care 08/2011; 1(1):34. DOI:10.1186/2110-5820-1-34 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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