The metabolic syndrome is likely to develop in patients in whom genetic predisposition, chronic stress, negative emotion, and unhealthy lifestyle habits converge. In light of the psychophysiologic aspect of most of these factors, biofeedback, relaxation, and other psychophysiologic interventions have been studied and used in patients with elements of the metabolic syndrome, particularly diabetes and hypertension. This article reviews the rationale and evidence for biofeedback for the treatment of diabetes and hypertension, which has been shown to effectively lower blood glucose and blood pressure in numerous studies. Patients with prehypertension may be a particularly appropriate target population for biofeedback for blood pressure reduction. Further research is needed to guide identification of the best candidates for psychophysiologic intervention for these conditions, although patient readiness for change is a clear prerequisite.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biofeedback training has been utilized for the treatment of different pathological conditions, in particular those related to stress/anxiety. This study reviews the scientific literature from 2008 to 2012 about the subject "biofeedback, stress and anxiety", published in MEDLINE, LILACS and Web of Sciences, using as keywords "biofeedback", "anxiety", "stress", "psychology" and "biofeedback training". The results obtained showed that biofeedback training has been successfully employed as a therapeutic tool for the management of stress/anxiety in the different populations studied. Nevertheless, all of the studies found were performed outside Brazil, which suggests that biofeedback as a therapeutic tool has not been utilized in the country for some reason that deserves to be better investigated.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: According to the World Health Organization, stress is a significant problem of our times and affects both physical as well as the mental health of people. Stress is defined as a situation where the organism‘s homeostasis is threatened or the organism perceives a situation as threatening. Stress coping methods are the cognitive, behavioral and psychological efforts to deal with stress. Method: After a thorough literature review in major databases (MEDLINE, Scopus, Science Direct) the following techniques were identified and are presented and briefly discussed here: progressive muscle relaxation, autogenic training, relaxation response, biofeedback, emotional freedom technique, guided imagery, diaphragmatic breathing, transcendental meditation, cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness-based stress reduction and emotional freedom technique. Conclusion: These are all evidence-based techniques, easy to learn and practice, with good results in individuals with good health or with a disease.
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