Interneurons, GABAA currents, and subunit composition of the GABAA receptor in type I and type II cortical dysplasia.
ABSTRACT Interneurons, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)(A) receptor density, and subunit composition determine inhibitory function in pyramidal neurons and control excitability in cortex. Abnormalities in GABAergic cells or GABA(A) receptors could contribute to seizures in malformations of cortical development. Herein we review data obtained in resected cortex from pediatric epilepsy surgery patients with type I and type II cortical dysplasia (CD) and non-CD pathologies. Our studies found fewer interneurons immunolabeled for glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in type II CD, whereas there were no changes in tissue from type I CD. GAD-labeled neurons had larger somata, and GABA transporter (VGAT and GAT1) staining showed a dense plexus surrounding cytomegalic neurons in type II CD. Functionally, neurons from type I CD tissue showed GABA currents with increased half maximal effective concentration compared to cells from the other groups. In type II CD, cytomegalic pyramidal neurons showed alterations in GABA currents, decreased sensitivity to zolpidem and zinc, and increased sensitivity to bretazenil. In addition, pyramidal neurons from type II CD displayed higher frequency of spontaneous inhibitory post synaptic currents. The GABAergic system is therefore, altered differently in cortex from type I and type II CD patients. Alterations in zolpidem, zinc, and bretazenil sensitivity and spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) suggest that type II CD neurons have altered GABA(A) receptor subunit composition and receive dense GABA inputs. These findings support the hypothesis that patients with type I and type II CD will respond differently to GABA receptor-mediated antiepileptic drugs and that cytomegalic neurons have features similar to immature neurons.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Carlos Cepeda, May 23, 2015
SourceAvailable from: Giuseppe Di Giovanni[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The vesicular neurotransmitter transporters (VNTs) are small proteins responsible for packing synaptic vesicles with neurotransmitters thereby determining the amount of neurotransmitter released per vesicle through fusion in both neurons and glial cells. Each transporter subtype was classically seen as a specific neuronal marker of the respective nerve cells containing that particular neurotransmitter or structurally related neurotransmitters. More recently, however, it has become apparent that common neurotransmitters can also act as co-transmitters, adding complexity to neurotransmitter release and suggesting intriguing roles for VNTs therein. We will first describe the current knowledge on vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUT1/2/3), the vesicular excitatory amino acid transporter (VEAT), the vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT), vesicular monoamine transporters (VMAT1/2), the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) and the vesicular γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT) in the brain. We will focus on evidence regarding transgenic mice with disruptions in VNTs in different models of seizures and epilepsy. We will also describe the known alterations and reorganizations in the expression levels of these VNTs in rodent models for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in human tissue resected for epilepsy surgery. Finally, we will discuss perspectives on opportunities and challenges for VNTs as targets for possible future epilepsy therapies.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 01/2013; 7:139. DOI:10.3389/fncel.2013.00139 · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Etiological factors that contribute to a high comorbidity between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy are the subject of much debate. Does epilepsy cause ASD or are there common underlying brain abnormalities that increase the risk of developing both disorders? This review summarizes evidence from quantitative MRI studies to suggest that abnormalities of brain structure are not necessarily the consequence of ASD and epilepsy but are antecedent to disease expression. Abnormal gray and white matter volumes are present prior to onset of ASD and evident at the time of onset in pediatric epilepsy. Aberrant brain growth trajectories are also common in both disorders, as evidenced by blunted gray matter maturation and white matter maturation. Although the etiological factors that explain these abnormalities are unclear, high heritability estimates for gray matter volume and white matter microstructure demonstrate that genetic factors assert a strong influence on brain structure. In addition, histopathological studies of ASD and epilepsy brain tissue reveal elevated rates of malformations of cortical development (MCDs), such as focal cortical dysplasia and heterotopias, which supports disruption of neuronal migration as a contributing factor. Although MCDs are not always visible on MRI with conventional radiological analysis, quantitative MRI detection methods show high sensitivity to subtle malformations in epilepsy and can be potentially applied to MCD detection in ASD. Such an approach is critical for establishing quantitative neuroanatomic endophenotypes that can be used in genetic research. In the context of emerging drug treatments for seizures and autism symptoms, such as rapamycin and rapalogs, in vivo neuroimaging markers of subtle structural brain abnormalities could improve sample stratification in human clinical trials and potentially extend the range of patients that might benefit from treatment.Epilepsy & Behavior 03/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.yebeh.2015.02.017 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Current reports on trace elements, oxidative stress, and the effect of antiepileptic drugs are poor and controversial. We aimed to review effects of most common used antiepileptics on antioxidant, trace element, calcium ion (Ca(2+)) influx, and oxidant systems in human and experimental animal models. Observations of lower blood or tissue antioxidant levels in epileptic patients and animals compared to controls in recent publications may commonly support the proposed crucial role of antioxidants in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Effects of old and new antiepileptics on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in epilepsy are controversial. The old antiepileptic drugs like valproic acid, phenytoin, and carbamazepine induced ROS overproduction, while new epileptic drugs (e.g., topiramate and zonisamide) induced scavenger effects on over production of ROS in human and animals. Antioxidant trace element levels such as selenium, copper, and zinc were generally low in the blood of epileptic patients, indicating trace element deficiencies in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Recent papers indicate that selenium with/without topiramate administration in human and animals decreased seizure levels, although antioxidant values were increased. Recent studies also reported that sustained depolarization of mitochondrial membranes, enhanced ROS production and Ca(2+) influx may be modulated by topiramate. In conclusion, there is a large number of recent studies about the role of antioxidants or neuroprotectants in clinical and experimental models of epilepsy. New antiepileptic drugs are more prone to restore antioxidant redox systems in brain and neurons.Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology 04/2013; 33(5). DOI:10.1007/s10571-013-9936-5 · 2.20 Impact Factor