Experimental study on allografts of amniotic epithelial cells in calcaneal tendon lesions of sheep.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, University of Teramo, Teramo, Italy.
Veterinary Research Communications (Impact Factor: 1.08). 06/2010; 34 Suppl 1:S117-20. DOI: 10.1007/s11259-010-9396-z
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT An experimental protocol was designed to study the survival and behaviour of an allograft of amniotic epithelial cells (AECs) in an ovine model. The study was conducted on three healthy adult sheep. A core lesion was created in both calcaneal tendons under ultrasound (US) guidance by injecting 400 UI of Type 1A collagenase diluted in 0.6 ml saline. The AECs were obtained from a 60-80-day-old fetus and cultured under standard conditions. After 15 days of collagenase treatment, 2 x 10(6) AECs stained with a vital membrane fluorescent probe (PHK26) were injected under US guidance in 500 microl saline solution into the lesion of one limb. The contralateral untreated limb was used as a control. Animals were euthanatized 7 (1) and 30 (2) days later. Histological analyses performed on explanted tendons clearly demonstrate that AECs survived for at least 1 month inside the lesion without any adverse reactions. The damaged tissue of the treated tendons showed a high number of reparative cells in active proliferation that were accumulating collagen within the extracellular matrix. In addition, after 1 month, the neo-collagen began to be organized into parallel arrays of fibers oriented along the longitudinal axis of the tendon.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ideal strategy for tendon healing has not been identified to date. Recently, the use of stem cells based therapy has been proposed, due to their ability to proliferate and to differentiate towards specific connective tissues lineages. Embryonic stem cells should be considered the ideal cell source for regenerative therapies, but ethical factors limit their use in humans. Mesenchymal stem cells are more easily available and can be obtained by different sources. Amnion derived stem cells can differentiate towards all three germ layers, and can be used for allogeneic transplantation and stored thanks to cryopreservation. In veterinary medicine, stem cells have been used with encouraging results for the treatment of the Superficial Digital Flexor tendinopathy in the horses. Considering that Superficial Digital Flexor tendinopathy is similar for pathogenesis and histopathology to Achilles tendinopathy in man, this experience can provide supportive data to encourage the use of regenerative therapy in humans.
    Muscles, ligaments and tendons journal. 07/2012; 2(3):187-92.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Evidence has been provided that a cell-based therapy combined with the use of bioactive materials may significantly improve bone regeneration prior to dental implant, although the identification of an ideal source of progenitor/stem cells remains to be determined. In the present research, the bone regenerative property of an emerging source of progenitor cells, the amniotic epithelial cells (AEC), loaded on a calcium-phosphate synthetic bone substitute, made by direct rapid prototyping (rPT) technique, was evaluated in an animal study. Two blocks of synthetic bone substitute (∼0.14 cm(3)), alone or engineered with 1×10(6) ovine AEC (oAEC), were grafted bilaterally into maxillary sinuses of six adult sheep, an animal model chosen for its high translational value in dentistry. The sheep were then randomly divided into two groups and sacrificed at 45 and 90 days post implantation (p.i.). Tissue regeneration was evaluated in the sinus explants by micro-computer tomography (micro-CT), morphological, morphometric and biochemical analyses. The obtained data suggest that scaffold integration and bone deposition are positively influenced by allotransplantated oAEC. Sinus explants derived from sheep grafted with oAEC engineered scaffolds displayed a reduced fibrotic reaction, a limited inflammatory response and an accelerated process of angiogenesis. In addition, the presence of oAEC significantly stimulated osteogenesis either by enhancing bone deposition or making more extent the foci of bone nucleation. Besides the modulatory role played by oAEC in the crucial events successfully guiding tissue regeneration (angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor expression and inflammation), data provided herein show that oAEC were also able to directly participate in the process of bone deposition, as suggested by the presence of oAEC entrapped within the newly deposited osteoid matrix and by their ability to switch-on the expression of a specific bone-related protein (osteocalcin, OCN) when transplanted into host tissues.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(5):e63256. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The present research has been performed to evaluate whether a commercial magnesium-enriched hydroxyapatite (MgHA)/collagen-based scaffold engineered with ovine amniotic fluid mesenchymal cells (oAFMC) could improve bone regeneration process in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bilateral sinus augmentation was performed on eight adult sheep in order to compare the tissue regeneration process at 45 and 90 days after implantation of the oAFMC-engineered scaffold (Test Group) or of the scaffold alone (Ctr Group). The process of tissue remodeling was analyzed through histological, immunohistochemical, and morphometric analyses by calculating the proliferation index (PI) of oAFMC loaded on the scaffold, the total vascular area (VA), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression levels within the grafted area. RESULTS: MgHA/collagen-based scaffold showed high biocompatibility preserving the survival of oAFMC for 90 days in grafted sinuses. The use of oAFMC increased bone deposition and stimulated a more rapid angiogenic reaction, thus probably supporting the higher cell PI recorded in cell-treated sinuses. A significantly higher VEGF expression (Test vs. Ctr Group; p = 0.0004) and a larger total VA (p = 0.0006) were detected in the Test Group at 45 days after surgery. The PI was significantly higher (p = 0.027) at 45 days and became significantly lower at 90 days (p = 0.0007) in the Test Group sinuses, while the PI recorded in the Ctr Group continued to increase resulting to a significantly higher PI at day 90 (CTR day 45 vs. CTR day 90; p = 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: The osteoinductive effect of a biomimetic commercial scaffold may be significantly improved by the presence of oAFMC. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The amniotic fluid mesenchymal cell (AFMC) may represent a novel, largely and easily accessible source of mesenchymal stem cells to develop cell-based therapy for maxillofacial surgery.
    Clinical Oral Investigations 10/2012; · 2.20 Impact Factor


Available from
May 22, 2014