Dietary salt intake and blood pressure in a representative Japanese population: baseline analyses of NIPPON DATA80.
ABSTRACT The relationship between dietary salt intake and blood pressure (BP) has been rarely investigated in a large population of Japanese. The characteristics of nutrients intake and foods intake in Japanese people with high salt intake have also not investigated well.
Data of 10,422 participants (4585 men and 5837 women) aged 30 or older who participated in both the National Survey on Circulatory Disorders and National Nutrition Survey in Japan conducted in 1980 were used. The nutrition surveys were performed with weighing record method for three consecutive days to each household. BP and intakes of nutrients and foods were compared by the quintiles of estimated individual salt intake per day. Analyses of covariance were used to calculate multivariate-adjusted mean BP values by the quintiles.
Participants with higher salt intake showed higher intakes of soy beans/legume, fruit, other vegetables, and fish/shellfish. Intakes of protein, potassium, calcium, iron, magnesium, and fiber were higher in higher quintiles of salt intake. In men, adjusted systolic BPs were higher in the higher salt intake quintiles; there was 4.3 mm Hg difference in multivariate-adjusted systolic BP between the lowest quintile (mean salt intake 8.7 g/day) and the highest quintile (mean salt intake 23.5 g/day) (P < 0.001). In women, adjusted mean systolic BPs were not statistically different among the quintile of salt intake.
A positive relationship of dietary salt intake to BP was observed, especially in men, in this large-scale representative Japanese population.