Primary peritoneal cancer after bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in two patients with Lynch syndrome.
ABSTRACT Women with Lynch syndrome or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC) have a 40-60% lifetime risk of endometrial cancer and a 7-12% lifetime risk of ovarian cancer. Risk-reducing surgery, including hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO), is currently recommended once child bearing is complete. We describe two cases of primary peritoneal cancer after BSO in women with Lynch syndrome or HNPCC.
The first patient was a 44-year-old woman who underwent hysterectomy with BSO for benign disease. She presented 12 years later with a pelvic mass and was diagnosed with a high-grade serous primary peritoneal cancer. Genetic testing showed a mutation in the MSH2 DNA mismatch repair gene. The second case was a 58-year-old woman who had a hysterectomy and BSO for endometrial cancer. She developed a high-grade serous primary peritoneal cancer 8 years later and was found to have a mutation in the PMS2 DNA mismatch repair gene.
Women with Lynch syndrome or HNPCC should be counseled that they may be at risk for developing primary peritoneal cancer despite undergoing gynecologic cancer risk-reducing surgery. The magnitude of this risk remains to be determined.
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ABSTRACT: Women with Lynch syndrome (LS) have a significantly increased lifetime risk of endometrial cancer (40-60 %) and ovarian cancer (7-12 %). Currently there is little evidence to support the efficacy of screening for the early detection of these cancers. Another option is risk-reducing hysterectomy and/or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). Research on the impact of BSO in premenopausal women with a non-LS associated family history cancer has generally shown that women have a high level of satisfaction about their decision to undergo surgery. However, debilitating menopausal symptoms and sexual dysfunction are common post-surgical problems. We used a mixed methods study to explore the impact of risk-reducing gynaecological surgery in women with LS: 24 women were invited to take part; 15 (62.5 %) completed validated questionnaires and 12 (50 %) participated in semi-structured interviews. Our results suggest that risk reducing surgery does not lead to significant psychological distress and the women tend not to think or worry much about developing cancer. However, they tend to be distressed about the physical and somatic symptoms associated with menopause; their social well-being is somewhat affected, but sexual difficulties are minimal. The women reported being overwhelmingly satisfied with their decision to have surgery and with the quality of information they received prior to the operation. However, they felt underprepared for menopausal symptoms and received conflicting advice about whether or not to use HRT. Recommendations from the study include that professionals discuss the menopause, its side effects and HRT in detail prior to surgery.Familial Cancer 10/2014; 14(1). DOI:10.1007/s10689-014-9761-0 · 1.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Riskreducing surgery (RRS) is defined as a prophylactic approach with removal of organs at high risk of developing cancer, which is performed in cases without lesions or absence of clinically significant lesions. Hereditary gynecological cancers for which RRS is performed include hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) and Lynch syndrome. For HBOC, RRS in the United States (US) is recommended for women with mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility (BRCA)1 and BRCA2 genes and bilateral salpingooophorectomy (BSO) is generally performed. This procedure may reduce the risk of breast, ovarian, Fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer, although ovarian deficiency symptoms occur postoperatively. For Lynch syndrome, RRS in the US is considered for postmenopausal women or for women who do not desire to bear children and BSO and hysterectomy are usually performed. This approach may reduce the risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer, although ovarian deficiency symptoms also occur. For RRS, there are several issues that must be addressed to reduce the risk of cancer development in patients with HBOC or Lynch syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review to discuss RRS with a focus on hereditary gynecological cancer.Molecular and Clinical Oncology 03/2015; 3(2). DOI:10.3892/mco.2014.460
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ABSTRACT: Over half the cancer deaths in HNPCC families are due to extra-colonic malignancies that include endometrial and ovarian cancers. The benefits of surveillance for gynecological cancers are not yet proven and there is no consensus on the optimal surveillance recommendations for women with MMR mutations. We performed a systematic review of the literature and evaluated gynecological cancer risk in a series of 631 Polish HNPCC families classified into either Lynch Syndrome (LS, MMR mutations detected) or HNPCC (fulfillment of the Amsterdam or modified Amsterdam criteria). Published data clearly indicates no benefit for ovarian cancer screening in contrast to risk reducing surgery. We confirmed a significantly increased risk of OC in Polish LS families (OR = 4,6, p < 0.001) and an especially high risk of OC was found for women under 50 years of age: OR = 32,6, p < 0.0001 (95% CI 12,96-81,87). The cumulative OC risk to 50 year of life was calculated to be 10%. Six out of 19 (32%) early-onset patients from LS families died from OC within 2 years of diagnosis. We confirmed a significantly increased risk of EC (OR = 26, 95% CI 11,36-58,8; p < 0,001). The cumulative risk for EC in Polish LS families was calculated to be 67%. Due to the increased risk of OC and absence of any benefit from gynecological screening reported in the literature it is recommended that prophylactic oophorectomy for female carriers of MMR mutations after 35 year of age should be considered as a risk reducing option. Annual transvaginal ultrasound supported by CA125 or HE4 marker testing should be performed after prophylactic surgery in these women. Due to the high risk of EC it is reasonable to offer, after the age of 35 years, annual clinical gynecologic examinations with transvaginal ultrasound supported by routine aspiration sampling of the endometrium for women from either LS or HNPCC families. An alternative option, which could be taken into consideration for women preferring surgical prevention, is risk reducing total hysterectomy (with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy) for carriers after childbearing is complete.Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice 01/2015; 13(1):3. DOI:10.1186/s13053-015-0025-2 · 1.71 Impact Factor