Underarm antiperspirants/deodorants and breast cancer.

School of Biological Sciences, Biomedical Sciences, Hopkin's Building, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6UB, UK.
Breast cancer research: BCR (Impact Factor: 5.88). 01/2009; 11 Suppl 3:S5. DOI: 10.1186/bcr2424
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: A framework for understanding the complexity of cancer development was established by Hanahan and Weinberg in their definition of the hallmarks of cancer. In this review, we consider the evidence that parabens can enable development in human breast epithelial cells of four of six of the basic hallmarks, one of two of the emerging hallmarks and one of two of the enabling characteristics. In Hallmark 1, parabens have been measured as present in 99% of human breast tissue samples, possess oestrogenic activity and can stimulate sustained proliferation of human breast cancer cells at concentrations measurable in the breast. In Hallmark 2, parabens can inhibit the suppression of breast cancer cell growth by hydroxytamoxifen, and through binding to the oestrogen-related receptor gamma may prevent its deactivation by growth inhibitors. In Hallmark 3, in the 10 nM–1 μM range, parabens give a dose-dependent evasion of apoptosis in high-risk donor breast epithelial cells. In Hallmark 4, long-term exposure (>20 weeks) to parabens leads to increased migratory and invasive activity in human breast cancer cells, properties that are linked to the metastatic process. As an emerging hallmark methylparaben has been shown in human breast epithelial cells to increase mTOR, a key regulator of energy metabolism. As an enabling characteristic parabens can cause DNA damage at high concentrations in the short term but more work is needed to investigate long-term, low-dose mixtures. The ability of parabens to enable multiple cancer hallmarks in human breast epithelial cells provides grounds for regulatory review of the implications of the presence of parabens in human breast tissue. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Journal of Applied Toxicology 09/2014; 34(9). DOI:10.1002/jat.3027 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data of the European Cancer Registries indicate that the incidence of breast cancer, the most common cancer among women, tends to increase not only in postmenopausal but also in very young women. The potential causes of breast cancer are genetic predisposition, long-term hormonal replacement therapy, different environmental factors (air pollution, agrochemicals, alcohol) . The controversial results of several studies suggest that certain consumer products (including cosmetic ingredients) may be linked to breast cancer. Some of them, such as ethylene oxide, have recently been classified by the International Agency for Research for Cancer as carcinogenic and mutagenic to humans, with sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity for breast cancer. Other ingredients, such as xenoestrogens, are chemicals which have estrogen-like effect or disrupt the normal metabolism of the natural estrogen and thus act as carcinogens. Some of them have been shown to result in DNA damage in animal and human mammary epithelial cells and, therefore, have the potential to generate genomic instability in breast tissues. Examples of such substances are numerous chemicals with estrogenic properties such as parabens, aluminium salts, phthalates, and bisophenol. Although the published studies have limitations such as the lack of epidemiological data in humans or the fact that they do not investigate the effects of a mixture of chemicals on the incidence of breast cancer. The results of the present study incline to the permanent analysis of the effects of diverse environmental factors, which, in addition to a genetic predisposition and natural aging, may contribute to the increased incidence of cancer.
    Polskie archiwum medycyny wewnȩtrznej 04/2014; · 2.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Parabens are a group of substances commonly employed as preservatives, mainly in personal care products, pharmaceuticals and food. Scientific reports concerning their endocrine disrupting potential and the possible link with breast cancer raised wide discussion about parabens' impact and safety. This paper provides holistic overview of paraben usage, occurrence in the environment, methods of their degradation and removal from aqueous solution, as well as hazards related to their endocrine disrupting potential and possible involvement in carcinogenesis.
    Environment International 06/2014; 67:27–42. DOI:10.1016/j.envint.2014.02.007 · 5.66 Impact Factor


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