[Breast cancer trends in Latin America and the Caribbean].
ABSTRACT Breast cancer is currently the most significant cause of death from malignancies in Latin American women, including cervical cancer.
Describe the magnitude and spatial-temporal distribution of breast cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) from 1979-2005.
National and international incidence and mortality statistics were reviewed and organized (registries, databases, and published literature), basic estimators and mortality ratios for each country were calculated and trends were analyzed.
Despite substantial data gaps in incidence for many countries, an increase in incidence and mortality is observed in LAC countries. Deaths/cases ratios illustrate problems in access to detection and treatment and the greatest gaps are observed in poorer countries.
A regional effort is needed to improve information systems related to cancer in general and breast cancer in particular. It is imperative to develop strategies to improve diagnostic infrastructure in order to achieve early detection and effective treatment and halt the upward trend in premature mortality.
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer among women in Chile and in many Latin American countries. Breast cancer screening is an effective strategy to reduce mortality, but it has a very low compliance among Chilean women. To understand barriers and facilitators for breast cancer screening in a group of Chilean women aged 50-70. Following the Predisposing, Enabling and Reinforcing (PRECEDE) framework, seven focus groups (N = 48 women) were conducted with women that have had diverse experiences with breast cancer and screening practices. Information was collected using field notes and audio and video recording. Following the grounded theory model, a sequential process of open, axial and selective coding was used for the information analysis. Atlas ti 5.5 software was used for coding and segmenting the data obtained from the interviews. The presence of symptoms and/or the finding of lumps through breast self-examination (BSE) were the main predisposing factors for getting a mammogram. Secrecy, embarrassment and fatalism about breast cancer were significant cultural factors that influenced the decision to seek mammogram screening. Confidence in medical staff and dignity in the treatment at the clinic were important enabling factors. The main reinforcing factors for getting the test were a sense of fulfilment by doing something good for themselves and getting timely information about the results. Primary health care providers should use culturally appropriate strategies to better inform women about the importance of mammography screening and the limitations of BSE for preventing advanced breast cancer.Family Practice 11/2009; 27(1):85-92. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer is the number one cause of can-cer deaths among Hispanic women in the United States, and in Mexico, it recently became the primary cause of cancer deaths. This malign-nancy represents a poorly understood and un-derstudied disease in Hispanic women. The ELLA Binational Breast Cancer Study was es-tablished in 2006 as a multi-center study to as-sess patterns of breast tumor markers, clinical characteristics, and their risk factors in women of Mexican descent. We describe the design and implementation of the ELLA Study and provide a risk factor comparison between women in the U.S. and those in Mexico based on a sample of 765 patients (364 in the U.S. and 401 in Mexico). Compared to women in Mexico, U.S. women had significantly (p < 0.05) lower parity (3.2 vs. 3.9 mean live births) and breastfeeding rates (57.5% vs. 80.5%), higher use of oral contraceptives (60.7% vs. 50.1%) and hormone replacement therapy (23.3% vs. 7.6%), and higher family history of breast cancer (15.7% vs. 9.0%). Re-sults show that differences in breast cancer risk factor patterns exist between Mexico and U.S. women. We provide lessons learned from the conduct of our study. Binational studies are an important step in understanding disease pat-terns and etiology for women in both countries.01/2010; 2:1040-1048.
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ABSTRACT: Breast cancer has the highest incidence of all cancers among women in Chile. In 2005, a national health program progressively introduced free mammography screening for women aged 50 and older; however, three years later the rates of compliance with mammographic screening was only 12% in Santiago, the capital city of Chile. This implementation article combines the findings of two previous studies that applied qualitative and quantitative methods to improve mammography screening in an area of Santiago. Socio-cultural and accessibility factors were identified as barriers and facilitators during the qualitative phase of the study and then applied to the design of a quantitative randomized clinical trial. After six months of intervention, 6% of women in the standard care group, 51.8% in the low intensity intervention group, and 70.1% in the high intensity intervention group had undergone a screening mammogram. This review discusses how the utilization of mixed methods research can contribute to the improvement of the implementation of health policies in local communities.Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 02/2011; 20 Suppl 2:S40-5. · 2.09 Impact Factor