Financing the delivery of vaccines to children and adolescents: challenges to the current system.
ABSTRACT Recent increases in the number and costs of vaccines routinely recommended for children and adolescents have raised concerns about the ability of the current vaccine financing and delivery systems to maintain access to recommended vaccines without financial barriers. Here we review the current state of US financing for vaccine delivery to children and adolescents and identify challenges that should be addressed to ensure future access to routinely recommended vaccines without financial barriers. Challenges were considered from the perspectives of vaccine providers; state and local governments; insurers, employers, and other health care purchasers; vaccine manufacturers; and consumers.
SourceAvailable from: Sheldon H Jacobson[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pediatric immunization programs in the USA are a successful and cost-effective public health endeavor, profoundly reducing mortalities caused by infectious diseases. Two important issues relate to the success of the immunization programs, the selection of cost-effective vaccines and the appropriate pricing of vaccines. The recommended childhood immunization schedule, published annually by the CDC, continues to expand with respect to the number of injections required and the number of vaccines available for selection. The advent of new vaccines to meet the growing requirements of the schedule results in a large, combinatorial number of possible vaccine formularies. The expansion of the schedule and the increase in the number of available vaccines constitutes a challenge for state health departments, large city immunization programs, private practices and other vaccine purchasers, as a cost-effective vaccine formulary must be selected from an increasingly large set of possible vaccine combinations to satisfy the schedule. The pediatric vaccine industry consists of a relatively small number of pharmaceutical firms engaged in the research, development, manufacture and distribution of pediatric vaccines. The number of vaccine manufacturers has dramatically decreased in the past few decades for a myriad of reasons, most notably due to low profitability. The contraction of the industry negatively impacts the reliable provision of pediatric vaccines. The determination of appropriate vaccine prices is an important issue and influences a vaccine manufacturer's decision to remain in the market. Operations research is a discipline that applies advanced analytical methods to improve decision making; analytics is the application of operations research to a particular problem using pertinent data to provide a practical result. Analytics provides a mechanism to resolve the challenges facing stakeholders in the vaccine development and delivery system, in particular, the selection of cost-effective vaccines and the appropriate pricing of vaccines. A review of applicable analytics papers is provided.Expert Review of Vaccines 04/2015; 14(4):605-616. DOI:10.1586/14760584.2015.985662 · 4.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background. Vaccination programs in school health centers (SHCs) may improve adolescent vaccine coverage. We conducted a process evaluation of an intervention to increase SHC-located vaccination to better understand the feasibility and challenges of such interventions. Method. Four SHCs participated in an intervention to increase provision of recommended vaccines to 2,975 adolescents. We reviewed program materials and SHC staff reports, and interviewed parents to assess implementation fidelity and reactions to materials. Results. Ten percent of parents returned forms with consent to at least one vaccine. Of these, 79% checked the box consenting for "all recommended" vaccines, rather than indicating individual vaccines. SHCs sent supplemental mailings to some parents that clarified (a) vaccination costs or (b) human papillomavirus vaccine recommendation for boys and required parents to reconsent. This process resulted in loss of initial consent, primarily due to nonresponse. In interviews, parents who consented to vaccination indicated that intervention materials were clear and persuasive, but needed greater detail about costs and clinic processes. Conclusions. With limited additional investment, it appears feasible for SHCs to achieve a modest increase in the number of vaccinated adolescents. Providing a checkbox to indicate global consent for all recommended vaccinations, and close collaboration among individuals involved in intervention development, may facilitate vaccination efforts.Health Education & Behavior 04/2014; 41(6). DOI:10.1177/1090198114531773 · 1.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the economic impact of the 2009 routine US childhood immunization schedule, including diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis, Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate, inactivated poliovirus, measles/mumps/rubella, hepatitis B, varicella, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate, hepatitis A, and rotavirus vaccines; influenza vaccine was not included. Decision analysis was conducted using population-based vaccination coverage, published vaccine efficacies, historical data on disease incidence before vaccination, and disease incidence reported during 2005 to 2009. Costs were estimated using the direct cost and societal (direct and indirect costs) perspectives. Program costs included vaccine, administration, vaccine-associated adverse events, and parent travel and work time lost. All costs were inflated to 2009 dollars, and all costs and benefits in the future were discounted at a 3% annual rate. A hypothetical 2009 US birth cohort of 4 261 494 infants over their lifetime was followed up from birth through death. Net present value (net savings) and benefit-cost ratios of routine childhood immunization were calculated. Analyses showed that routine childhood immunization among members of the 2009 US birth cohort will prevent ∼42 000 early deaths and 20 million cases of disease, with net savings of $13.5 billion in direct costs and $68.8 billion in total societal costs, respectively. The direct and societal benefit-cost ratios for routine childhood vaccination with these 9 vaccines were 3.0 and 10.1. From both direct cost and societal perspectives, vaccinating children as recommended with these vaccines results in substantial cost savings.PEDIATRICS 03/2014; DOI:10.1542/peds.2013-0698 · 5.30 Impact Factor