Specific food group combinations explaining the variation in intakes of nutrients and other important food components in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: an application of the reduced rank regression method.

Department of Epidemiology, German Institute of Human Nutrition, Potsdam-Rehbrücke, Germany.
European journal of clinical nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.07). 11/2009; 63 Suppl 4:S263-74. DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2009.85
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To identify combinations of food groups that explain as much variation in absolute intakes of 23 key nutrients and food components as possible within the country-specific populations of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
The analysis covered single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) from 36,034 subjects (13,025 men and 23,009 women), aged 35-74 years, from all 10 countries participating in the EPIC study. In a set of 39 food groups, reduced rank regression (RRR) was used to identify those combinations (RRR factors) that explain the largest proportion of variation in intake of 23 key nutrients and food components, namely, proteins, saturated fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, sugars (sum of mono- and disaccharides), starch, fibre, alcohol, calcium, iron, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin D, beta-carotene, retinol and vitamins E, B1, B2, B6, B12 and C (RRR responses). Analyses were performed at the country level and for all countries combined.
In the country-specific analyses, the first RRR factor explained a considerable proportion of the total nutrient intake variation in all 10 countries (27.4-37.1%). The subsequent RRR factors were much less important in explaining the variation (<or=6%). Strong similarities were observed for the first country-specific RRR factor between the individual countries, largely characterized by consumption of bread, vegetable oils, red meat, milk, cheese, potatoes, margarine and processed meat. The highest explained variation was seen for protein, potassium, phosphorus and magnesium (50-70%), whereas sugars, beta-carotene, retinol and alcohol were only marginally explained (<or=5%). The explained proportion of the other nutrients ranged between these extremes.
A combination of food groups was identified that explained a considerable proportion of the nutrient intake variation in 24-HDRs in every country-specific EPIC population in a similar manner. This indicates that, despite the large variability in food and nutrient intakes reported in the EPIC, the variance of intake of important nutrients is explained, to a large extent, by similar food group combinations across countries.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Much of the attention on diet and Alzheimer's disease (AD) or cognition among the elderly has focused on the role of single nutrients or foods, while available information on dietary pattern (DP) analysis, which better reflects the complexity of the diet, is sparse. In this review, we describe different patterning approaches and present studies performed to date that have assessed the associations between DPs and risk of AD or cognitive function in the elderly. Three patterning approaches have been most commonly used: (i) hypothesis-based that use dietary quality indexes or scores (e.g. Mediterranean pattern), (ii) data-driven that use factor or cluster analysis to derive DPs, (iii) reduced rank regression which combines characteristics of the former two approaches. Despite differences existing among the approaches, DPs characterized by higher intake of fruits, vegetables, fish, nuts and legumes, and lower intake of meats, high fat dairy, and sweets seemed to be associated with lower odds of cognitive deficits or reduced risk of AD. Overall, the inherent advantages as well as the existing evidence of DP analyses strongly suggest that this approach may be valuable in AD and aging research. Further studies are warranted, though, to confirm the findings in different population settings, to address some methodological issues, and possibly utilize the information for future clinical trial design.
    Current Alzheimer research 05/2011; 8(5):510-9. · 4.97 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the risk of developing breast cancer associated with consumption of two common dietary patterns: a Mediterranean dietary pattern and a dietary pattern, which conforms to the World Health Organization Healthy Diet Index (WHO HDI). Dietary data from a 217-item food frequency questionnaire were used to generate two dietary patterns according to pre-defined criteria in women from the UK Women's Cohort Study. Survival analysis using Cox regression was used to estimate hazards ratios for risk of breast cancer adjusted for known confounders. This analysis included 828 incident cases of breast cancer in 33,731 women with a mean follow-up of 9 years. There were no statistically significant associations between either the Mediterranean dietary pattern or the WHO HDI and risk of breast cancer. In premenopausal women, there was a nonsignificant trend suggesting that increasing compliance with the Mediterranean diet was associated with lower risk of breast cancer. Maximal adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with hazards ratio=0.65 (95% confidence interval: 0.42-1.02, P trend=0.09) compared with minimal adherence. In postmenopausal women, no clear trends were observed. In this study, no strong association between the risk of breast cancer and the consumption of either a Mediterranean-type diet or one characterized by adherence to the WHO HDI was observed. In premenopausal, but not postmenopausal women, there was a nonsignificant inverse association with increasing adherence to the Mediterranean diet pattern.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 05/2011; 65(8):920-8. · 3.07 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To describe the strengths, limitations and requirements of using EPIC-Soft software (the software developed to conduct 24-h dietary recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study) in pan-European food consumption surveys, and to discuss potentials and barriers for a harmonized pan-European food consumption survey. The paper is based on the experiences in the 'European Food Consumption and Validation' Project, which included updating six existing and preparing one new country-specific EPIC-Soft version, applying EPIC-Soft in validation and feasibility studies, and estimating the intake of nutrients and flavoring substances. The experiences were discussed in the September 2009 workshop 'Pan-European Food Consumption Surveys--for Standardized and Comparable Transnational Data Collection'. EPIC-Soft is suitable for detailed and standardized food consumption data collection in pan-European food consumption surveys. A thorough preparation of all aspects of the food consumption survey is important for the quality and efficiency during data collection and processing. The preparation and data-handling phase of working with EPIC-Soft is labor intensive and requires trained, motivated and qualified personnel. Given the suitability of EPIC-Soft as standardized dietary assessment tool in European dietary monitoring, the proposed strategy toward a pan-European food consumption survey is to prepare well, to allow flexibility in national extensions and to start with a limited number of countries that are interested.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 07/2011; 65 Suppl 1:S48-57. · 3.07 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 10, 2014