Serine protease inhibitor attenuates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury and edema formation in rat.
ABSTRACT Our previous studies have demonstrated that thrombin plays an important role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain injury and edema formation. We, therefore, examined whether nafamostat mesilate (FUT), a serine protease inhibitor, can reduce ICH-induced brain injury. Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats received an infusion of autologous whole blood (100 microL), thrombin (5U/50 microL) or type VII collagenase (0.4 U/2 microL) into the right basal ganglia, the three ICH models used in the present study. FUT (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally 6 h after ICH (or immediately after thrombin infusion) and then at 12-h intervals (six treatments in total, n = 5 in each group). All rats were sacrificed 72 h later. We also examined whether FUT promotes rebleeding in a model in which ICH was induced by intracerebral injection of collagenase. Systemic administration of FUT starting 6 h after ICH reduced brain water content in the ipsilateral basal ganglia 72 h after ICH compared with vehicle. FUT attenuated ICH-induced changes in 8-OHdG and thrombin-reduced brain edema. FUT did not increase collagenase-induced hematoma volume. FUT attenuates ICH-induced brain edema and DNA injury suggesting that serine protease inhibitor may be potential therapeutic agent for ICH.