The role of dairy in meeting the recommendations for shortfall nutrients in the American diet.
ABSTRACT The 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (DGAC) recognized calcium, potassium and magnesium, all found in high levels in dairy foods, among the shortfall nutrients in both children and adults' diets.
The objectives were to determine: 1) the percentage of the population with intakes greater than the Adequate Intakes (AI) for calcium and potassium and the percentage of the population with inadequate magnesium intake (based on Estimated Average Requirement [EAR]) and 2) the impact of various levels of dairy consumption on intake of calcium, potassium and magnesium.
Secondary analysis of data from the 1999-2004 NHANES. SUBJECTS/ SETTING: Participants 2 years of age and older.
Percentage of the population meeting current recommendations for calcium, potassium and magnesium.
Percentage of EAR/AI for nutrients was calculated based on age/gender specific values. All analyses were weighted using the NHANES six-year sample weights and adjusted for the complex sample design of NHANES with the statistical package SUDAAN.
The most recent NHANES data demonstrated that a significant proportion of the American population did not meet recommendations for calcium, potassium, and magnesium. Less than 3% of the population consumed the recommended level or more of potassium. Only 30% of the US population 2 years of age and older obtained the recommended level of calcium or more and 55% consumed less than the EAR for magnesium. Recommending 3-4 servings from the dairy group for all people greater than 9 years of age may be necessary in order to ensure adequate intake of calcium and magnesium, assuming the current diet remains the same. More than 4 servings of dairy would be needed to meet the potassium recommendation at all ages.
For those individuals who do not consume dairy products, we need to better understand the barriers to consuming specific dairy products. In addition, more research is needed to examine whether food-based recommendations are practical, feasible and cost effective to meet nutrient needs.
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ABSTRACT: Dietary guidance emphasizes plain low-fat and skim milk over whole, reduced-fat, and flavored milk (milk eligible for replacement [MER]). The objective of this study was to evaluate the population-level impact of such a change on energy, macronutrient and nutrient intakes, and diet cost. Cross-sectional modeling study. Data from the 2001-2002 and 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 8,112 children aged 2-19 years. Energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake before and after replacement of MER with low-fat or skim milk. Survey-weighted linear regression models. Milk eligible for replacement accounted for 46% of dairy servings. Among MER consumers, replacement with skim or low-fat milk would lead to a projected reduction in energy of 113 (95% confidence interval [CI], 107-119) and 77 (95% CI, 73-82) kcal/d and percent energy from saturated fat by an absolute value of 2.5% of total energy (95% CI, 2.4-2.6) and 1.4% (95% CI, 1.3-1.5), respectively. Replacement of MER does not change diet costs or calcium and potassium intake. Substitution of MER has the potential to reduce energy and total and saturated fat intake with no impact on diet costs or micronutrient density. The feasibility of such replacement has not been examined and there may be negative consequences if replacement is done with non-nutrient-rich beverages. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior 02/2015; 47(1):61-68.e1. DOI:10.1016/j.jneb.2014.11.001 · 1.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A poor appetite in older adults is an important determinant of reduced food intake and undernutrition. Food preferences may influence food intake. The aim of this study was to investigate food preferences of older adults with a poor appetite and compare these with preferences of older adults with a good appetite. Older adults (n = 349, aged 65–101 years) in nursing/residential care homes, hospitals or at home receiving home care participated in a computer-based forced-choice food preference assessment. Selfreported appetite in the past week was classified as ‘good’ or ‘poor’ using a validated instrument. Food preferences were determined by counting the relative frequency of choices for food images according to 11 dichotomous categories: high/low 1) protein; 2) fat; 3) carbohydrates; 4) fiber; 5) variation; and 6) animal/vegetarian proteins; 7) sweet/savory taste; 8) solid/liquid texture; 9) dairy/non-dairy; with/ without 10) sauce or 11) color variation. Specific food preferences in participants with a poor appetite were identified by one-sample t-tests comparing frequencies to the expected value of 48. Preference differences between those with a good and a poor appetitewere analyzed using GLM adjusting for confounders. The results showed that older adults with a poor appetite (n = 113; 32.4%) preferred variation (51.6 vs. 48, P < 0.001), color variation (55.9 vs. 48, P < 0.01), non-dairy (53.0 vs. 48, P < 0.001), high-fiber (51.8 vs. 48, P < 0.05), and solid texture (53.5 vs. 48, P < 0.05). Participants with a poor appetite had a higher frequency score for variation than participants with a good appetite (51.6 vs. 48.5, P < 0.001). In conclusion, older adults with a poor appetite may have specific food preferences. Their preference for variation differs from those with a good appetite. These results may be used to develop meals that are preferred by older adults with poor appetite in order to increase food intake and prevent undernutrition.Appetite 03/2015; 90:168-175. · 2.52 Impact Factor