Obesity, diets, and social inequality

Center for Public Health Nutrition at the School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-3410, USA.
Nutrition Reviews (Impact Factor: 6.08). 05/2009; 67 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S36-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1753-4887.2009.00157.x
Source: PubMed


Obesity and type 2 diabetes follow a socioeconomic gradient. Highest rates are observed among groups with the lowest levels of education and income and in the most deprived areas. Inequitable access to healthy foods is one mechanism by which socioeconomic factors influence the diet and health of a population. As incomes drop, energy-dense foods that are nutrient poor become the best way to provide daily calories at an affordable cost. By contrast, nutrient-rich foods and high-quality diets not only cost more but are consumed by more affluent groups. This article discusses obesity as an economic phenomenon. Obesity is the toxic consequence of economic insecurity and a failing economic environment.

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    • "Several studies found that in the United States, higher rates of obesity are linked to lower household incomes and higher rates of poverty for all members of the household (Drewnowski and Darmon 2005; Drewnowski 2009; Freedman et al. 2007; Freedman 2011; Ogden et al. 2010). Drewnowski (2009) suggests this relationship may be because " healthier diets, " which include less processed foods and more fresh fruits and vegetables, are generally more expensive in the United States. Additionally, Monteiro et al. (2004) conducted a review of research published from 1989 to 2003 examining the relationship between the prevalence of adult obesity and socio-economic status in developing countries. "
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    ABSTRACT: This study examines the relationship between the use of modern food retailers and health outcomes using data from a survey of 1,180 urban households in Indonesia. The dependent variables include adult and child body-mass index and the share of individuals overweight and obese. After controlling for individual and household characteristics and using standard and Lewbel instrumental variable approaches to control for unobservable characteristics, we do not find a statistically significant relationship between use of supermarkets and adult nutrition measures. On the other hand, there is mixed evidence for a negative effect of supermarkets on child nutrition, particularly for those in high-income households.
    American Journal of Agricultural Economics 03/2015; 97(2). DOI:10.1093/ajae/aau111 · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    • "All of these factors influence how the society and individual subjects perceive obesity. Previous research emphasized the roles of gender and socioeconomic status in the process of obesity development [10] [19] [20]. An example of the complexity of genderesocioeconomic status effects on obesity is that fact that in Brazil, obesity is more frequent among high-income men and low-income women compared with their peers [21]. "
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    • "Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation that is associated with insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia and cardiometabolic diseases [1,2]. Several studies have linked consumption of diets high in oils to an increased incidence of obesity [3-5]. In contrast, consumption of diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids such as soy oil, with its high content of linoleic and α-linolenic acids, is beneficial in reducing inflammation and serum lipid concentrations [6,7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Soy oil is a major vegetable oil consumed in the US. A recently developed soybean variety produces oil with a lower concentration of α-linolenic acid, hence a higher (n-6)/(n-3) ratio, than regular soy oil. The study was conducted to determine the metabolic impact of the low α-linolenic acid containing soy oil. Methods Ossabaw pigs were fed diets supplemented with either 13% regular soybean oil (SBO), or 13% of the low α-linolenic soybean oil (LLO) or a control diet (CON) without extra oil supplementation, for 8 weeks. Results Serum and adipose tissue α-linolenic acid concentration was higher in pigs fed the SBO diet than those on the CON and LLO diets. In the serum, the concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA) was lower in the LLO group than in CON and SBO groups polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration was higher in the LLO group compared to CON and SBO groups. Glucose, insulin, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol were higher in pigs fed the SBO diet than those fed the CON and LLO diets. HDL-cholesterol was lower in pigs on the SBO diet than those on the CON and LLO diets. Pigs fed SBO and LLO diets had lower CRP concentration than those on the CON diet. Adipose tissue expression of Interleukin 6 (IL-6) was higher in the SBO and LLO diets than the CON. Expression of ECM genes, COLVIA and fibronectin, was significantly reduced in the SBO diet relative to the CON and LLO diets whereas expression of inflammation-related genes, cluster of differentiation 68 (CD68) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), was not different across treatments. Conclusions Results suggest that lowering the content of α-linolenic acid in the context of a high fat diet could lead to mitigation of development of hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia without significant effects on adipose tissue inflammation.
    Nutrition & Metabolism 03/2013; 10(1):27. DOI:10.1186/1743-7075-10-27 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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