Association between type two diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in youth

Unit of Hepatology Bambino Gesù Hospital and Research Institute Piazza San Onofrio 4 00165 Rome
Annals of hepatology: official journal of the Mexican Association of Hepatology (Impact Factor: 2.07). 01/2009; 8 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S44-50.
Source: PubMed


In the last three decades prevalence of insulin related diseases has been growing worldwide with epidemic obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and non alcoholic fatty liver disease. In children such epidemics are particularly worrisome, since metabolic abnormalities track to the adulthood with significant implications for the health care system. Epidemiological studies support a close association between type 2 diabetes and fatty liver disease. We review the most recent epidemiological data on prevalence of both diseases in youth and their association.

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    • "Although the simultaneous occurrence of type 2 diabetes with NAFLD or elevated liver enzymes is a frequent observation [7]–[10] and the role of insulin resistance has been reviewed [11], few studies with selected (clinical) populations have so far described the association between liver enzymes as surrogate measurements of fatty liver disease and “pre-diabetes” [12]–[16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether the elevated liver enzymes gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase (GOT) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) respectively are independently associated with pre-diabetic states, namely impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or known and newly diagnosed diabetes (NDD), in men and women from the general German population. The study was based on 3009 subjects (1556 females, 1453 males) aged 32 to 81 years who participated in the KORA-F4-Study in 2006/2008 in Augsburg, Southern Germany. All non-diabetic participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test to assess disturbances in glucose metabolism. NAFLD was estimated by liver enzyme concentrations and the Bedogni Fatty Liver Index (FLI). 229 participants (7.6%) reported known diabetes, 106 had NDD (3.5%), 107 (3.6%) had IFG, 309 (10.3%) had IGT, 69 (2.3%) were affected with both metabolic disorders (IFG/IGT) and 74 (2.5%) could not be classified. GGT and GPT were significantly elevated in persons with pre-diabetes and diabetes (GGT in diabetic persons OR = 1.76, [1.47-2.09], in IFG OR = 1.79 [1.50-2.13], GPT in diabetic persons OR = 1.51, [1.30-1.74], in NDD OR = 1.77 [1.52-2.06]), GOT and AP only inconsistently in some pre-diabetes groups. The effects were sharpened in models using an increase of two or three out of three enzymes as an estimate of fatty liver and especially in models using the FLI. Overall frequency of NAFLD applying the index was 39.8% (women: 27.3% and men: 53.2%). In participants with fatty liver disease, the OR for NDD adjusted for sex and age was 8.48 [5.13-14.00], 6.70 [3.74-12.01] for combined IFG and IGT and 4.78 [3.47-6.59] for known diabetes respectively. Elevated GGT and GPT-values as well as estimates of fatty liver disease are significantly associated with pre-diabetes and diabetes and thus very useful first indicators of a disturbed glucose metabolism.
    PLoS ONE 08/2011; 6(8):e22932. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0022932 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "IMT tends to be increased in adolescent patients with steatosis suggesting additional cardiovascular risk.171 Therefore moderate transaminase elevation, a common finding at the onset of type 2 diabetes, warrants detection, evaluation and intensification of the treatment plan.172 "
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    ABSTRACT: The foundations for cardiovascular disease in adults are laid in childhood and accelerated by the presence of comorbid conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Early detection of vascular dysfunction is an important clinical objective to identify those at risk for subsequent cardiovascular morbidity and events, and to initiate behavioral and medical interventions to reduce risk. Typically, cardiovascular screening is recommended for young adults, especially in people with a family history of cardiovascular conditions. Children and adolescents were once considered to be at low risk, but with the growing health concerns related to sedentary lifestyle, poor diet and obesity, cardiovascular screening may be needed earlier so that interventions to improve cardiovascular health can be initiated. This review describes comorbid conditions that increase cardiovascular risk in youth, namely obesity and diabetes, and describes noninvasive methods to objectively detect vascular disease and quantify vascular function and structure through measurements of endothelial function, arterial compliance, and intima-media thickness. Additionally, current strategies directed toward prevention of vascular disease in these populations, including exercise, dietary interventions and pharmacological therapy are described.
    Vascular Health and Risk Management 11/2009; 5:973-90. DOI:10.2147/VHRM.S7116
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