Advances in Antiplatelet Therapy: Agents in Clinical Development

Division of Cardiology, University of Florida College of Medicine-Jacksonville, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.
The American journal of cardiology (Impact Factor: 3.28). 02/2009; 103(3 Suppl):40A-51A. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2008.11.023
Source: PubMed


Antiplatelet agents are the cornerstone of treatment for patients with acute coronary syndromes and patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The current "gold standard" consists of a combination of aspirin and clopidogrel administered orally shortly before invasive procedures and then continued in the form of maintenance doses. Not all patients respond optimally to standard therapy. Resistance to the antiplatelet activity of both drugs when used either singly or in combination has been observed and may lead to treatment failure, including further atherothrombotic events. Potential limitations associated with the combined use of aspirin and clopidogrel have inspired clinical investigation into several promising new antiplatelet agents as potential additions or alternatives to standard therapy. The candidates include prasugrel, which has a mechanism similar to that of clopidogrel but with superior pharmacokinetics; ticagrelor, a nonthienopyridine that binds reversibly to the platelet P2Y(12) receptor; cangrelor, an intravenously administered analogue of ticagrelor; and various thrombin receptor antagonists.

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    • "SCH 530348 shows a high bioavailability and a half-life of 126–269 h (Kasoglou et al., 2005; Becker et al., 2009). SCH 530348 given to healthy volunteers in a single dose (5–40 mg) caused a mean inhibition of >90% of thrombin receptor activating peptide-induced platelet aggregation for more than 72 h (Kasoglou et al., 2005; Angiolillo et al., 2009; Becker et al., 2009). A 40 mg loading dose followed by a 2.5 mg once-daily dose of SCH 530348 effectively inhibited thrombin receptor activating peptide-induced platelet aggregation throughout 28 days (Chintala et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Platelet inhibitors are the mainstay treatment for patients with vascular diseases. The current 'gold standard' antiplatelet agent clopidogrel has several pharmacological and clinical limitations that have prompted the search for more effective platelet antagonists. The candidates include various blockers of the purinergic P2Y12 receptor such as prasugrel, an oral irreversible thienopyridine; two adenosine triphosphate analogues that bind reversibly to the P2Y12 receptor: ticagrelor (oral) and cangrelor (intravenous); elinogrel, a direct-acting reversible P2Y12 receptor inhibitor (the only antiplatelet compound that can be administered both intravenously and orally); BX 667, an orally active and reversible small-molecule P2Y12 receptor antagonist; SCH 530348, SCH 205831, SCH 602539 and E5555, highly selective and orally active antagonists on the protease-activated receptor 1. A number of drugs also hit new targets: terutroban, an oral, selective and specific inhibitor of the thromboxane receptor; ARC1779, a second-generation, nuclease resistant aptamer which inhibits von Willebrand factor-dependent platelet aggregation; ALX-0081, a bivalent humanized nanobody targeting the GPIb binding site of von Willebrand factor and AJW200, an IgG4 monoclonal antibody of von Willebrand factor. The pharmacology and clinical profiles of new platelet antagonists indicate that they provide more consistent, more rapid and more potent platelet inhibition than agents currently used. Whether these potential advantages will translate into clinical advantages will require additional comparisons in properly powered, randomized, controlled trials.
    British Journal of Pharmacology 02/2010; 159(3):502-17. DOI:10.1111/j.1476-5381.2009.00555.x · 4.84 Impact Factor
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    • "The addition of clopidogrel to daily aspirin therapy is standard practice to prevent thrombotic complications following percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) and was shown beneficial in most patients [1] [2]. However, the variability in response between patients has fuelled a need to identify those in whom clopidogrel efficacy may be suboptimal, and has stimulated research for new antiplatelet agents presenting less platelet response variability [3]. Although the concern over inefficacy of clopidogrel to inhibit platelet aggregation was recognized in the latest guidelines published by the American College of Cardiology, the American Heart Association and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, which warrant testing for clopidogrel efficacy in patients in whom subacute stent thrombosis may be catastrophic or lethal, there is no official recommendation for the most appropriate methodology to assess the efficacy of clopidogrel [1]. "
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    ABSTRACT: When studying the efficacy of clopidogrel to inhibit platelet aggregation by light transmission aggregometry, technical decisions must be taken prior to assessment or during analysis, including, but not limited to, concentration of agonist to use and timing of the evaluation of the response on the aggregation curve obtained (peak ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation vs. late aggregation). We investigated how some of these technical modalities affected the results of platelet aggregation obtained after clopidogrel administration. One hundred and twenty stable coronary artery disease patients requiring a diagnostic angiography were recruited prior to pre-treatment with clopidogrel. Blood samples were tested before clopidogrel initiation and immediately preceding coronary angiography using light transmission aggregometry with either 5 or 20 microM of ADP. Aggregation was measured at maximal amplitude (peak), and 5 minutes after agonist addition (late). While measurements of platelet aggregation as either peak or late aggregation were strongly correlated, peak platelet aggregation was significantly higher than late aggregation, by 10.8% and by 10.3% with ADP 5 and 20 microM, respectively. Moreover, the use of ADP 20 microM resulted in less spontaneous disaggregation than 5 microM in the absence of clopidogrel (11.8% and 4.8% with ADP 5 microM and 20 microM, respectively). When assessing platelet aggregation following clopidogrel, measurement of late aggregation after addition of ADP 20 microM should be preferred. Large clinical trials should be conducted to assess which parameter between residual aggregation or inhibition of platelet aggregation by clopidogrel best predicts clinical efficacy of the drug.
    Thrombosis Research 06/2009; 124(5):546-53. DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2009.04.003 · 2.45 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Die koronare Herzkrankheit ist die häufigste Todesursache in Industrienationen und wird mit Zunahme ihrer Risikofaktoren in Zukunft weiter an Bedeutung gewinnen. Seitdem große Studien zeigen konnten, dass KHK-Patienten von der Behandlung mit dem Thrombozytenaggregationshemmer Clopidogrel profitieren, ist das Thienopyridin Bestandteil der leitliniengerechten Therapie der akuten und chronischen KHK. In den letzten Jahren fanden Forscher jedoch heraus, dass individuelle Unterschiede in der Wirksamkeit von Clopidogrel existieren, die bei Nonrespondern mit einem erhöhten kardiovaskulären Risiko einhergehen. Zur Beurteilung der Relevanz eines verminderten Ansprechens auf Clopidogrel in einem alltäglichen Patientenkollektiv wurde aktuell die Thrombozytenaktivität von 100 konsekutiven Patienten mit stabiler KHK untersucht, die mit mindestens 75 mg Clopidogrel täglich behandelt wurden. Neben dem P2Y12-spezifischen PRI kam dazu auch die Messung der Verschlusszeit im PFA-100®, die ADP-induzierte P-Selektin-Expression und der aktuelle Goldstandard der Thrombozytenaktivitätsmessung, die ADP-induzierte Plättchenaggregometrie, zum Einsatz. Trotz guter Korrelation der Ergebnisse von PRI und Aggregometrie, war die Rate der Nonresponder mit einem PRI > 50% deutlich höher als in der Aggregometrie. Insgesamt fand sich bei 69% der Patienten ein unzureichendes Ansprechen auf Clopidogrel. 39% der Clopidogrel-Nonresponder konnten in der Aggregometrie nicht als solche detektiert werden. In der statistischen Analyse zeigten sich niedrige HDL-Spiegel und eine Hypercholesterinämie in der Vorgeschichte als Einflussfaktoren der Clopidogrel-Nonresponsiveness. Andere kardiovaskuläre Risikofaktoren, Komorbiditäten und Medikamente hatten keine Auswirkung auf die Clopidogrel-Responsiveness. Die Problematik der Clopidogrel-Nonresponsiveness bedarf vor allem wegen der Korrelation mit klinischen Ereignissen und der erhöhten Mortalität einer baldigen Lösung. In Frage kommen dazu der Einsatz neuer Substanzen und eine generelle oder individuelle Dosisanpassung. Unklar ist allerdings noch, welches Konzept am sichersten und ökonomischsten ist. Aktuell ist besonders bei Hochrisikopatienten eine Testung der Clopidogrel-Responsiveness mit individueller Dosisanpassung sinnvoll. Aufgrund der höheren Sensitivität im Vergleich zur Plättchenaggregometrie wäre ein P2Y12-spezifischer Test ähnlich dem PRI dazu am ehesten geeignet. Incomplete P2Y(12)-inhibition during clopidogrel treatment is associated with increased cardiovascular events and mortality after coronary intervention. We investigated the incidence of impaired individual clopidogrel-responsiveness using a P2Y(12)-specific and pre-treatment-independent assay in a real world situation. One hundred consecutive patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) on combined acetylsalicylic acid and clopidogrel treatment (75 mg/d) and 33 patients on aspirin only were screened for platelet ADP-induced signalling by conventional aggregometry, platelet P-selectin expression and the platelet reactivity index (PRI). Impaired P2Y(12)-specific inhibition by clopidogrel was defined as a PRI>50%. Functional platelet reactivity was significantly lower in clopidogrel-treated patients compared to controls. Impaired individual response to treatment was diagnosed in 69% of clopidogrel-treated patients. Conventional assessment of maximum ADP-induced platelet aggregation failed to detect impaired P2Y(12) inhibition in 36% of patients identified by PRI to have an impaired clopidogrel response. Impaired clopidogrel response was associated with lower HDL levels and a history of hyperlipidaemia. In conclusion, PRI as a P2Y(12)-specific assay to evaluate the treatment effect of clopidogrel in patients with CAD revealed insufficient P2Y(12)-inhibition in two thirds of patients in a real-world scenario indicating a markedly higher incidence than previously assumed. PRI detected significantly more patients with impaired response than conventional platelet aggregation.
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