School meals: types of foods offered to and consumed by children at lunch and breakfast.
ABSTRACT Children's food intakes do not meet dietary recommendations. Meals offered through the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program make substantial contributions to school-aged children's diets.
This article describes foods offered in school meals and consumed by children at lunch and breakfast, and differences in foods consumed by children who did and did not participate in the school meal programs.
Data were collected as part of the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, a cross-sectional, nationally representative study conducted in 2005. School menu surveys were used to identify the foods offered in school meals, and 24-hour dietary recalls were used to assess the foods children consumed.
Foodservice managers in 398 public schools and 2,314 children (grades 1 to 12) from 287 of these schools participated in the study.
Descriptive tabulations report percentages of daily menus that offered and percentages of children that consumed specific food groups and foods at lunch and breakfast. Two-tailed t tests were used to assess differences between school meal program participants and nonparticipants.
Most school menus offered nonfat or 1% milk, fruit or 100% juice, and vegetables daily. Starchy vegetables were more common than dark green/orange vegetables or legumes. School lunch participants were significantly more likely than nonparticipants to consume milk, fruit, and vegetables, and significantly less likely to consume desserts, snack items, and beverages other than milk or 100% juice. At breakfast, participants were significantly more likely than nonparticipants to consume milk and fruit (mainly 100% juice), and significantly less likely to consume beverages other than milk or 100% juice.
Consumption of school meals is positively related to children's intakes of key food groups at lunch and breakfast. Offering more fresh fruit, whole grains, and a greater variety of vegetables could lead to additional health benefits.
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ABSTRACT: To compare reported dairy/calcium intake with intake recommendations and examination of food sources and fat levels of dairy intake in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Dietary, anthropometric, and sociodemographic data for 2- to 18-year-olds (n = 7716) were evaluated to compare intakes of dairy (MyPyramid) and calcium (Adequate Intake [AI]) recommendations. US Department of Agriculture food codes were used to identify mutually exclusive food groups of dairy-contributing foods, which were ranked in descending order proportional to total intake. Complex sample survey Student t tests were used to determine statistical significance among intakes in 4 age groups and between reported and recommended intakes. Dairy consumption was not significantly different among age groups, but only 2- to 3-year-olds met the MyPyramid recommendation. Calcium intake was significantly different among age groups, and 2- to 8-year-olds met the AI. Intake of flavored milk ranged from 9% to 18%. More than half of the milk consumed by 2- to 3-year-olds was whole milk, and, with the exception of yogurt consumption in 2- to 3-year-olds, children choose to consume more of the highest-fat varieties of cheese, yogurt, ice cream, and dairy-based toppings. Dairy and calcium intakes are inadequate in 4- to 18-year-olds. Most children consume the high-fat varieties of milk and dairy products. Focusing nutrition guidance efforts on increasing the intake of the low-fat dairy products, with special emphasis on increasing calcium intake in school-age children and adolescents through flavored low-fat milk products, may be beneficial.The Journal of pediatrics 01/2008; 151(6):642-6, 646.e1-2. · 4.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article describes the background and design of the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA-III). SNDA-III is a nationally representative cross-sectional study of the National School Lunch Program and the School Breakfast Program in 2005. The three-stage sample design allowed description of district and school food environments and policies, analysis of foods and nutrients in school lunches and breakfasts, and assessment of the role of school meals and competitive foods in students' diets. Surveys of district and school staff were by telephone or in person; school menu data were collected in a mail survey with telephone assistance; and student and parent interviews were conducted in person and in school, except that parents of secondary-school students were interviewed by telephone. Student interviews included a 24-hour dietary recall, as well as measurement of height and weight. Response rates were 83% for districts, 95% for schools, and 63% for students, whose participation was constrained by consent issues and school schedules. Data were collected from 130 public school food authorities (districts that offer federally subsidized school meals), 398 schools within those districts, and 2,314 public-school students in grades 1 through 12 in these schools. Of the 2,314 students, a random subset of 666 (29%) completed a second recall to permit estimation of usual nutrient intake distributions. Descriptive tabulations were used to summarize the background characteristics of schools and students and most study outcomes. Multivariate regression models and propensity score matching were used to compare the nutrient intakes of school meal participants and nonparticipants. SNDA-III data provide a rich resource for examining interactions among the school meal programs, the school food environment, students' diets, and child obesity. Subsequent articles in this Supplement present analyses in all these areas.Journal of the American Dietetic Association 02/2009; 109(2 Suppl):S20-30. · 3.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Concerns about the diets of school-aged children and new nutrition recommendations for the US population have increased interest in the nutritional quality of meals available through the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program. This article updates national estimates of the food energy and nutrient content of school meals and compares these estimates to federal nutrient standards established under the 1995 School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children. Data were collected as part of the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, a nationally representative cross-sectional study fielded during school year 2004-2005. Menu and recipe data for a typical school week were collected in a mail survey with telephone assistance. Nutrient information for common commercially prepared food items was obtained from manufacturers, to supplement the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies used to analyze the data. Analyses were conducted for meals offered and meals served to (selected by) children. Samples of 130 public school districts that offered federally subsidized school meals, and 398 schools within those districts, participated in the study. Foodservice managers in each school completed a menu survey. Descriptive tabulations present weighted means, proportions, and standard errors for elementary, middle, and high schools, and for all schools combined. Most schools offered and served meals that met the standards for protein, vitamins, and minerals. Fewer than one third of schools met the standards for energy from fat or saturated fat in the average lunch, whereas three fourths or more met the fat standards in school breakfasts. For both meals, average levels of sodium were high and fiber was low relative to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 recommendations. For school meals to meet nutrient standards and promote eating behaviors consistent with the Dietary Guidelines, future policy, practice, and research should focus on reducing levels of fat and sodium and increasing fiber.Journal of the American Dietetic Association 02/2009; 109(2 Suppl):S31-43. · 3.80 Impact Factor