The Third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study: Summary and Implications

Journal of the American Dietetic Association (Impact Factor: 3.92). 02/2009; 109(2 Suppl):S129-35. DOI: 10.1016/j.jada.2008.10.066
Source: PubMed


Bringing school meals in line with the 2005 Dietary Guidelines will involve more than changing nutrient standards and revising menu planning regulations. SNDA-III provides evidence that, despite the hard work of many individuals, schools, and organizations, SMI goals were not fully achieved. Strategies are needed to enhance the ability of schools to offer healthier meals.

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Available from: Anne R Gordon, Aug 15, 2014
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    • "Many schools rely on the convenience and lower cost of pre-prepared processed items such as pizza. It appears that school foodservice personnel would need guidance on appropriate nutrientbased specifications (Gordon et al, 2009). Additional empirical studies using observations rather than self-reported questionnaires are needed to evaluate the impact of the school food environment and school meal policies on actual food selections and their impact on the nutritional health of high school students. "
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    ABSTRACT: USDA Nutrient Standard Menu Planning option, one of two National School Lunch Program options for school meal planning, has no requirements for fruit/vegetable servings and enables foodservice to serve nutrient-poor foods while remaining compliant with nutrition requirements. The objective of this research was to compare student reported preferences, meals offered, and meals selected over nine days. A preference survey was administered to 151 ninth grade students attending a low-income northern California high school. School lunch observations were conducted daily for an average of 418 to 584 students by trained researchers. Observation data demonstrated that 66% of students chose no servings of fruit or vegetables over the nine day period. In addition, 37% consistently selected the same one or two meals out of the 32 meals offered daily over a five day period. There was a discrepancy between reported meal preferences and observed meal selections. While 10% selected pizza as their most preferred entrée, pizza comprised almost 30% of all daily entrée sales. This discrepancy is possibly due to the increased availability of pizza and/or limited availability of the more preferred entrees that either contain or are served with a fruit/vegetable. Findings indicate that a significant proportion of students may complete high school without ever selecting a serving of fruit or vegetables. A considerable gap between available food items and student preferences resulted in nutrient-poor food selection practices among 9th graders.
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    ABSTRACT: Validation-study data were analyzed to investigate the effect of retention interval (time between the to-be-reported meal and interview) on accuracy of children's school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports in 24-h recalls, and to compare accuracy of children's school-breakfast reports for two breakfast locations (classroom; cafeteria). Each of 374 fourth-grade children was interviewed to obtain a 24-h recall using one of six conditions from crossing two target periods (prior 24 h; previous day) with three interview times (morning; afternoon; evening). Each condition had 62 or 64 children (half boys). A recall's target period included one school breakfast and one school lunch, for which the child had been observed. Food-item variables (observed number; reported number; omission rate; intrusion rate) and energy variables (observed; reported; report rate; correspondence rate; inflation ratio) were calculated for each child for school breakfast and school lunch separately. Accuracy for school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports was inversely related to retention interval. Specifically, as indicated by smaller omission rates, smaller intrusion rates, larger correspondence rates and smaller inflation ratios, accuracy for school-breakfast reports was best for prior-24-h recalls in the morning, and accuracy for school-lunch reports was best for prior-24-h recalls in the afternoon. For neither school meal was a significant sex effect found for any variable. For school-breakfast reports, there was no significant school-breakfast location effect for any variable. By shortening the retention interval, accuracy can be improved for school-breakfast reports and school-lunch reports in children's 24-h recalls.
    European journal of clinical nutrition 09/2009; 63(12):1394-403. DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2009.107 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study determined attitudes of kindergarten through fifth grade teachers about school nutrition environments, their perceived influence on school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors. Specific objectives were to: (a) identify perceived factors that influence the school nutrition environment, according to teachers surveyed; (b) examine relationships between elementary school teacher attitudes about school nutrition environments and perceived influence on the environment; (c) examine relationships between elementary school teachers’ attitudes about school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors; (d) examine relationships between perceived influence over the school nutrition environment and self-reported classroom behaviors; and, (e) examine relationships between teachers’ demographic characteristics and attitudes and perceived influence on school nutrition environments, and self-reported classroom behaviors. Research was conducted in a mid-size Florida school district including 501 participants from 23 elementary schools. The Teacher Survey on School Nutrition Environments instrument was developed and validated by the researcher. Teachers identified the Food and Nutrition Services department as having the greatest impact on school nutrition environments, followed by student lunches and snacks sent from home. Responses to open-ended questions identified parents as part of the problem in developing healthy school nutrition environments. The Food and Nutrition Services department and parents were identified as having primary responsibility for encouraging healthy food choices at school, followed by administration, then teachers. Teachers did not perceive opportunities to provide input or to impact the school nutrition environment beyond their classrooms. The greater self-efficacy the teachers possessed, the more they felt they influenced the nutrition environment, and the more likely they were to offer menu suggestions, to sit or eat with students, to discuss food-related topics, and to integrate nutrition into lessons. Similar results were noted for teachers with college coursework in nutrition and those who were more experienced teachers. Classroom teachers should be encouraged to become involved and to recognize their role in developing and maintaining a healthy school nutrition environment. Increased communication should occur between school nutrition programs and teachers. Local wellness policy development and implementation should emphasize teachers’ influence.
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