Article

Depressive symptoms of children and adolescents in a German representative sample: results of the BELLA study.

Senate Department for Health, Environment and Consumer Protection Berlin, Oranienstr. 106, 10969, Berlin, Germany.
European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 3.7). 12/2008; 17 Suppl 1:71-81. DOI: 10.1007/s00787-008-1008-x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In Europe, a considerable proportion of children and adolescents is affected by depressive symptoms, impairing their everyday life and social functioning.
The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the depressive symptoms in children and adolescents in Germany, addressing risk factors, comorbidity, and impact of depressive symptoms on everyday life.
In the BELLA study, the mental health module of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), a representative sample of young people aged 7-17 years was enrolled. Depressiveness, assessed by the CES-DC, as well as other mental health problems were examined in the context of risk and protective factors.
Depressive symptoms showed high prevalence in parent- and self-reports. Higher depression scores were found in those with a high number of psychosocial risks existing in the family, and they decreased as the number of protective factors the children and adolescents had at their disposal increased. Although only half of the boys and girls with high depression scores were regarded as significantly impaired, all of them had a much higher risk for additional mental health problems. Furthermore, their health-related quality of life was limited compared to their peers who had low depression scores.
To differentiate between clinically significant depression and milder forms, it is necessary to take into account the different perspectives of children and their parents. Prevention and intervention should acknowledge the widespread distribution of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents, the high comorbidity of depressive and other mental health problems and the impact of depression on the aspects of everyday life.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
132 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examines adolescent depressive symptoms and the quantity and quality of time spent by adolescents with their parents and siblings. We use measures of the quality of relationships with parents and siblings as proxy indicators for the quality of time spent with these social partners. The study emphasizes the salience of parent relationships to adolescent depression. The structural equation models suggest that time spent with parents is indirectly linked with the severity of depressive symptoms via adolescents’ perceptions of how accepting their parents are of them, and the extent to which parents avoid exerting psychological control. We discuss these findings in relation to clinical practice.
    Social Indicators Research 01/2011; 101(2):233-238. · 1.13 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To date, no one-phase survey of childhood depression has been performed in China that involves both urban and rural community children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, correlates, and mental health service utilization of depressive disorders (DDs) in a community-based sample of 6-14-year-old children in south-central China. METHODS: Children (3,582) were approached through multistage sampling and interviewed using a Chinese version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents 5.0, which is a structured interview that is administered by trained psychiatrists to obtain information from children and their guardians. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of all current DDs was found to be 2.8% (95%CI: 1.5-3.9). The risk factors for depression included being 9-14-year old, not attending school, having unmarried parents, living in a nonnuclear family (single parent or parentless family), being taken care of by people other than two parents (single parent, grandparent(s), other relatives, or others) during the past year, and not being breastfed prior to 1 year of age. Only 5.8% of the depressed children had received professional help prior to the interview. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of DDs among children in this part of China is relatively high compared with most figures reported in other countries. Depression in this age group has been a major public health concern, but it is often underrecognized. There is an urgent need to develop efficacious interventions aimed at the prevention and early recognition of childhood depression.
    Depression and Anxiety 04/2013; · 4.61 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The goal of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and clinical outcomes of a brief (6-session) group therapy programme in adolescent outpatients with depression. The programme had previously been assessed in in-patients, with positive results. A total of 15 outpatients aged 13 to 18 years took part in the programme between October 2010 and May 2011, in 3 separate groups of 4-6 participants each. The outcomes measured were feasibility of the programme, as assessed by attendance rate, user feedback, fidelity of implementation, and response to treatment, as assessed by pre- and post-intervention measurement of depressive symptoms, quality of life, and suicidal ideation. The programme demonstrated good feasibility, with a mean attendance rate of 5.33 out of 6 sessions, a mean rating by participants on overall satisfaction with the programme of 7.21 out of 10 (SD = 1.89), and a 93% concurrence between the contents of the sessions and the contents of the treatment manual. Compared to baseline scores, depressive symptoms at follow-up test were significantly reduced, as assessed by the Children's Depression Rating Scale Revised (F(1, 12) = 11.76, p < .01) and the Beck Depression Inventory Revision (F(1, 32) = 11.19, p < .01); quality of life improved, as assessed by the Inventory of Quality of Life (F(1, 31) = 5.27, p < .05); and suicidal ideation was reduced. No significant changes were seen on the measures of the Parent Rating Scale for Depression and the Clinical Global Impression scale. Based on the results of this pilot study, it is feasible to further assess this brief outpatient treatment programme in a randomized controlled trial without further modifications.
    Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health 03/2014; 8(1):9.

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
76 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014