MRI of pelvic floor dysfunction: review.
ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy and etiology of pelvic floor weakness in women and to discuss the role of MRI in the assessment of female pelvic floor dysfunction. CONCLUSION: In women with pelvic floor weakness, pelvic MRI, with its superior soft-tissue contrast resolution, allows direct visualization of the pelvic organs and their supportive structures in a single noninvasive examination. By providing useful and valuable information on the extent and severity of pelvic organ prolapse, MRI plays a valuable role in preoperative planning of complex cases.
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ABSTRACT: A recent randomised trial suggested that an algorithmic approach to investigating and managing gastrointestinal symptoms of pelvic radiation disease (PRD) is beneficial and that specially trained nurses can manage patients as effectively as a gastroenterologist. The aim of the development and peer review of the guide was to make the algorithm used in the trial accessible to all levels of clinician. Experts who manage patients with PRD were asked to review the guide, rating each section for agreement with the recommended measures and suggesting amendments if necessary. Specific comments were discussed and incorporated as appropriate, and this process was repeated for a second round of review. 34 gastroenterologists, 10 nurses, 9 dietitians, 7 surgeons and 5 clinical oncologists participated in round one. Consensus (defined prospectively as 60% or more panellists selecting 'strongly agree' or 'agree') was reached for 27 of the original 28 sections in the guide, with a median of 75% of panellists agreeing with each section. 86% of panellists agreed that the guide was acceptable for publication or acceptable with minor revisions. 55 of the original 65 panellists participated in round two. 89% agreed it was acceptable for publication after the first revision. Further minor amendments were made in response to round two. Development of the guide in response to feedback included ▸ improvement of occasional algorithmic steps ▸ a more user-friendly layout ▸ clearer timeframes for referral to other teams ▸ expansion of reference list ▸ addition of procedures to the appendix.Frontline gastroenterology. 01/2015; 6(1):53-72.
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ABSTRACT: This study describes a technique to quantify muscle fascicle directions in the levator ani (LA) and tests the null hypothesis that the in vivo fascicle directions for each LA subdivision subtend the same parasagittal angle relative to a horizontal reference axis. Visible muscle fascicle direction in the each of the three LA muscle subdivisions, the pubovisceral (PVM; synonymous with pubococcygeal), puborectal (PRM), and iliococcygeal (ICM) muscles, as well as the external anal sphincter (EAS), were measured on 3-T sagittal MRI images in a convenience sample of 14 healthy women in whom muscle fascicles were visible. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) angle values relative to the horizontal were calculated for each muscle subdivision. Repeated measures ANOVA and post-hoc paired t tests were used to compare muscle groups. Pubovisceral muscle fiber inclination was 41 ± 8.0°, PRM was -19 ± 10.1°, ICM was 33 ± 8.8°, and EAS was -43 ± 6.4°. These fascicle directions were statistically different (p < 0.001). Pairwise comparisons among levator subdivisions showed angle differences of 60° between PVM and PRM, and 52° between ICM and PRM. An 84° difference existed between PVM and EAS. The smallest angle difference between levator divisions was between PVM and ICM 8°. The difference between PRM and EAS was 24°. All pairwise comparisons were significant (p < 0.001). The null hypothesis that muscle fascicle inclinations are similar in the three subdivisions of the levator ani and the external anal sphincter was rejected. The largest difference in levator subdivision inclination, 60°, was found between the PVM and PRM.International Urogynecology Journal 05/2014; · 2.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study is to compare levator hiatus measurements between pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pelvic ultrasound (US) imaging modalities.Female pelvic medicine & reconstructive surgery. 07/2014; 20(4):216-221.