MRI of Pelvic Floor Dysfunction: Review

Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Singapore General Hospital, Outram Rd., Singapore 169608, Republic of Singapore.
American Journal of Roentgenology (Impact Factor: 2.74). 12/2008; 191(6 Suppl):S45-53. DOI: 10.2214/AJR.07.7096
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy and etiology of pelvic floor weakness in women and to discuss the role of MRI in the assessment of female pelvic floor dysfunction. CONCLUSION: In women with pelvic floor weakness, pelvic MRI, with its superior soft-tissue contrast resolution, allows direct visualization of the pelvic organs and their supportive structures in a single noninvasive examination. By providing useful and valuable information on the extent and severity of pelvic organ prolapse, MRI plays a valuable role in preoperative planning of complex cases.

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    ABSTRACT: To compare magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pelvic floor musculature (PFM), bladder neck and urethral sphincter morphology under three conditions (rest, PFM maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and straining) in older women with symptoms of stress (SUI) or mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) or without incontinence. This 2008-2012 exploratory observational cohort study was conducted with community-dwelling women aged 60 and over. Sixty six women (22 per group), mean age of 67.7 ± 5.2 years, participated in the study. A 3 T MRI examination was conducted under three conditions: rest, PFM MVC, and straining. ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis tests (data not normally distributed) were conducted, with Bonferroni correction, to compare anatomical measurements between groups. Women with MUI symptoms had a lower PFM resting position (M-Line P = 0.010 and PC/H-line angle P = 0.026) and lower pelvic organ support (urethrovesical junction height P = 0.013) than both continent and SUI women. Women with SUI symptoms were more likely to exhibit bladder neck funneling and a larger posterior urethrovesical angle at rest than both continent and MUI women (P = 0.026 and P = 0.008, respectively). There were no significant differences between groups on PFM MVC or straining. Women with SUI and MUI symptoms present different morphological defects at rest. These observations emphasize the need to tailor UI interventions to specific pelvic floor defects and UI type in older women. Older women with UI demonstrate different problems with their pelvic organ support structures depending on the type of UI. These new findings should be taken into consideration for future research into developing new treatment strategies for UI in older women. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Neurourology and Urodynamics 03/2015; DOI:10.1002/nau.22743 · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A recent randomised trial suggested that an algorithmic approach to investigating and managing gastrointestinal symptoms of pelvic radiation disease (PRD) is beneficial and that specially trained nurses can manage patients as effectively as a gastroenterologist. The aim of the development and peer review of the guide was to make the algorithm used in the trial accessible to all levels of clinician. Experts who manage patients with PRD were asked to review the guide, rating each section for agreement with the recommended measures and suggesting amendments if necessary. Specific comments were discussed and incorporated as appropriate, and this process was repeated for a second round of review. 34 gastroenterologists, 10 nurses, 9 dietitians, 7 surgeons and 5 clinical oncologists participated in round one. Consensus (defined prospectively as 60% or more panellists selecting 'strongly agree' or 'agree') was reached for 27 of the original 28 sections in the guide, with a median of 75% of panellists agreeing with each section. 86% of panellists agreed that the guide was acceptable for publication or acceptable with minor revisions. 55 of the original 65 panellists participated in round two. 89% agreed it was acceptable for publication after the first revision. Further minor amendments were made in response to round two. Development of the guide in response to feedback included ▸ improvement of occasional algorithmic steps ▸ a more user-friendly layout ▸ clearer timeframes for referral to other teams ▸ expansion of reference list ▸ addition of procedures to the appendix.
    01/2015; 6(1):53-72. DOI:10.1136/flgastro-2014-100468
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    ABSTRACT: Pelvic floor weakness is a functional condition that affects the anatomic structures supporting the pelvic organs: fasciae, ligaments, and muscles. It is a prevalent disorder among people older than 50 years, especially women, and may substantially diminish their quality of life. Many complex causes of pelvic floor weakness have been described, but the greatest risk factors are aging and female sex. Pelvic floor weakness can provoke a wide range of symptoms, including pain, urinary and fecal incontinence, constipation, difficulty in voiding, a sense of pressure, and sexual dysfunction. When the condition is diagnosed solely on the basis of physical and clinical examination, the compartments involved and the site of prolapse are frequently misidentified. Such errors contribute to a high number of failed interventions. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, which allows visualization of all three compartments, has proved a reliable technique for accurate diagnosis, especially when involvement of multiple compartments is suspected. MR imaging allows precise evaluation of ligaments, muscles, and pelvic organs and provides accurate information for appropriate surgical treatment. Moreover, dynamic MR imaging with steady-state sequences enables the evaluation of functional disorders of the pelvic floor. The authors review the pelvic floor anatomy, describe the MR imaging protocol used in their institutions, survey common MR imaging findings in the presence of pelvic floor weakness, and highlight key details that radiologists should provide surgeons to ensure effective treatment and improved outcomes. Online supplemental material is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2014.