Misra, A. & Khurana, L. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 93 (Suppl. 1), S9-S30

Department of Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases, Fortis Flt. Lt. Rajan Dhall Hospital, Vasant Kunj, New Delhi 110070, India.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.21). 11/2008; 93(11 Suppl 1):S9-30. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2008-1595
Source: PubMed


Prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome is rapidly increasing in developing countries, leading to increased morbidity and mortality due to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease.
Literature search was carried out using the terms obesity, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, dyslipidemia, nutrition, physical activity, and developing countries, from PubMed from 1966 to June 2008 and from web sites and published documents of the World Health Organization and Food and Agricultural Organization.
With improvement in economic situation in developing countries, increasing prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome is seen in adults and particularly in children. The main causes are increasing urbanization, nutrition transition, and reduced physical activity. Furthermore, aggressive community nutrition intervention programs for undernourished children may increase obesity. Some evidence suggests that widely prevalent perinatal undernutrition and childhood catch-up obesity may play a role in adult-onset metabolic syndrome and T2DM. The economic cost of obesity and related diseases in developing countries, having meager health budgets is enormous.
To prevent increasing morbidity and mortality due to obesity-related T2DM and cardiovascular disease in developing countries, there is an urgent need to initiate large-scale community intervention programs focusing on increased physical activity and healthier food options, particularly for children. International health agencies and respective government should intensively focus on primordial and primary prevention programs for obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

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    • "For children, regular moderate physical activity is associated with substantial physical and psychological health benefits including body size, with implications for later life health trajectories (Strong et al. 2005; Janz et al. 2009). Moreover, childhood overweight and obesity has become one of the most significant youth health issues in the developed and developing world (Misra and Khurana 2008; Swinburn et al. 2011). The impacts of obesity in childhood are pervasive, negatively affecting physical well-being (Lobstein, Baur, and Uauy 2004), self-esteem (Reilly et al. 2005), and academic achievement (Datar, Sturm, and Magnabosco 2004), as well as imposing a substantial health-care financial burden (Trasande et al. 2009) and increasing the likelihood of obesity in adulthood (Wang et al. 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Substantial changes to the built environment, urbanisation patterns, and societal norms have contributed to limiting children's opportunities for being independently mobile. Several linear causal pathway models have been developed to understand the influences on children's independent mobility; however feedback loops between and within the various levels of influence cannot be modelled using such an approach. The purpose of this paper is to refine the interrelationships of factors related to children's independent mobility, taking into account earlier models, broader contextual factors, recent children's geographies literature, and feedback loops. System model components were informed by attributes known to influence children's independent mobility, related qualitative findings, and the development of a framework that could lend itself to multilevel modelling approaches. This system models may provide a useful structure for identifying how best to develop and monitor interventions to halt the declining rates of children's independent mobility.
    Children s Geographies 03/2015; DOI:10.1080/14733285.2015.1021240 · 1.16 Impact Factor
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    • "Recent evidence shows that nutritional, lifestyle and socioeconomic transitions are occurring in many developing countries [4] and participation in exercise is known to decrease significantly between adolescence and adulthood, the age range of most University students [5] [6]. Consequent upon this is an increasing craves for junk food among young females and a superimposition of less physically active lifestyle to meet the changing socioeconomic challenges. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: Assessment of correlation and agreement among three different field methods of determining Percent Body Fat (PBF) in obese University females. Methods: Convenience and snowball sampling technique were used to recruit 30 obese females for the study. PBF were obtained from each participant using three field methods of bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA), skinfold calliper (SC) and body adiposity index (BAI) respectively. Data were analysed using Pearson correlation, independent t-test and Bland-Altman plot. Alpha level was set at 0.05. Results: There was no significant relationship (r=0.376; p=0.30) between methods of assessing percentage body fat using SC and BIA. There was significant relationship (r=0.196; p=0.041) between BAI and BIA methods of assessing percentage body fat. There was no significant relationship in the results obtained between each of the other methods and skinfold calliper. Conclusions: There was a poor level of agreement amongst the methods despite the evidence or lack of relationships.
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    • "It has been established that abdominal obesity, assessed by waist circumference (WC), predicts obesity-related health risk 40—42. Various studies have shown a high prevalence of abdominal obesity in South Asians [43]. In this ethnic group, abdominal obesity has been recognised as an important risk factor for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disorders 44—46. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Obesity and the lifestyle characteristic of Indian society lead young people to conditions of potential cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of overweight/obesity and central obesity and its associated factors in a sample of Indian university students. Methods In a cross-sectional survey assessed anthropometric measurements and a self-administered questionnaire among a sample of randomly selected university students. The sample included 800 university students from non health (mainly sciences) courses Gitam University in India. The students were 541 (67.6%) males and 259 (32.4%) females in the age range of 17–20 years (M age 18.2 years, SD = 1.0). Results 37.5% were overweight or obese, 26.8% overweight (≥23–27.4 BMI) and 10.7% obese (≥27.5 kg/m2), 11.7% underweight (<18.5 kg/m2) and 16.4% central obesity (WC ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women). In multivariate analysis among men lack of non-organised religious activity (odds ratio = OR 0.85, confidence interval = CI 0.77–0.95), lower dietary risk knowledge (OR = 0.64, CI = 0.41–0.99), tobacco use (OR = 2.23, CI = 1.14–4.38), and suffering from depression (OR = 1.59, CI = 1.00–2.47) were associated with overweight/obesity, and younger age (OR = 0.32, CI = 0.12–0.90), lives away from parents or guardians (OR = 1.79, CI = 1.04–3.07), healthy dietary practices (OR = 1.95, CI = 1.02–3.72) and 9 or more hours sleep duration (OR = 0.28, CI = 0.09–0.96) were associated with central obesity. In bivariate analysis among women, lack of social support, lower dietary risk knowledge, tobacco use, and 9 or more hours sleep duration were associated with overweight/obesity and lives away from parents or guardians and abstinence from alcohol associated with central obesity. Conclusions The study found a high prevalence of overweight/obesity and central obesity. Several gender specific health risk practices were identified including lack of dietary risk knowledge, shorter sleep duration, living away from parents or guardians, tobacco use and lack of social support and religiousness that can be utilised in health promotion programmes.
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